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BIRDS 

of the 



KAMPALA AREA 



BRITISH MUSEUM 
(NA1 TORY) 

2 5 OCT 1933 
EX ED 



Margaret Carswell 



Scopus Special Supplement Number 2 



Birds 

of the 

Kampala 

Area 



BIRDS 

of the ^ 

KAMPALA AREA 



2 5 OCT 1S33 



Margaret Carswell 



K. 



Scopus Special Supplement Number 2 



Nairobi 

Ornithological 
Sub-Committee. EANHS 






(c) Dr Margaret Carswell, 1986 



Published by the Ornithological Sub-Committee of the 
East African Natural History Society and available from 
D.A. Turner, P.O. Box 48019, Nairobi, Kenya. 



Printed in Kenya by 

English Press, P.O. Box 30127 

Enterprise Road, Nairobi 



CONTENTS 

Preface and Acknowledgements 1 

Introduction 1 

Topography . . . . 2 

Vegetation 2 

Habitats 3 

Climate 4 

Order and Nomenclature 4 

Sources of Data 4 

Source of Bias 5 

Definitions and Abbreviations 5 

Species Recorded 8 

Appendix A : Unconfirmed Records requiring Verification 69 

Appendix B : Additions and Corrections up to June 1984 with species 

New to the Area 70 

Gazetteer 72 

References 73 

Index of Scientific Names 77 

Index of English Names 85 



PREFACE 

The object of this paper is to summarize all the available data, published and 
unpublished, referring to the distribution and status of birds in an area of 
approximately 35 - 40 kilometres radius from Kampala. Because the area is 
relatively small it is possible to go into greater detail for each species than 
is done in other works, for example Britton (1980) . 

In collating all the available information the obvious gaps in knowledge are 
clearly brought out. Fairly elementary facts about relatively common birds are 
simply not known. For example the paucity of breeding records is remarkable. 
Furthermore there is a lack of dated records for many species, and migratory 
patterns are unknown. Many species are assumed to be resident when there is no 
local breeding record, and few accurately dated records. In the present paper 
this is emphasised, and the probable status of some species qualified by a 
comment. Some tentative suggestions are made regarding the status of certain 
species, and these should be regarded as working hypotheses and not as 
definitive statements. 

I am greatly indebted to a number of people for help of various sorts. The 
late Capt. C.R.S. Pitman, who did much work here in the past, provided much 
useful information. Dr J. Ash, A. Forbes-Watson, R. Frankum, D. Halstead, 
Rev. P. Hamel, P. Volrath and, in particular, A. Sheldon have contributed many 
hours of help in the field. They, Dr D. Pearson and Prof. D. Pomeroy have kindly 
allowed me to use their unpublished records. Hazel Britton and B. Taylor have 
been most helpful in answering my questions on breeding records. G. Backhurst 
and Dr D. Pearson have read an earlier draft and made many helpful suggestions. 
I am also grateful to G. Backhurst for his help and expertise with the publishing 
of this paper and in particular for preparing the map. Without the help of these 
people, and especially their unpublished records, this paper would be far less 
complete. 

I hope that this paper will provide a base line for future work. Any errors 
are mine, and I should be grateful to hear of additions and corrections. 

INTRODUCTION 

BACKGROUND 

The history of ornithological work in this area goes back to the end of the 
last century when early workers necessarily confined their activities to 
collecting and describing specimens. This emphasis gradually changed when 
collecting expeditions gave way to individuals who, while living in the area, 
were able to contribute considerably to knowledge in the field. Many of these 
workers were in Government service and, because Entebbe and later Kampala was 
the seat of Government, this area became one of the best worked areas in East 
Africa. This trend away from mere collecting continued in Jackson's monumental 
work, finished by Sclater in 1938 (Jackson 1938) . Although over forty years 
old this remains one of the best sources of information available today. 
Other notable works include Seth-Smith (1913) , van Someren (1922 and 1932) , 
Pearson (1972a & b) , Okia (1976) and Hamel (1980). 

CHANGES IN RECENT YEARS 

There have been several changes in distribution and status in recent years. 
These are noted under the species accounts and only a few general comments will 
be made here. 

Some forest species have certainly suffered during the destruction of the 
forests which continues here, as elsewhere in East Africa. However, very little 
quantitative work has been done in this field in recent years so the position is 
not accurately known. It seems fairly certain, however, that some forests and in 
particular the Mabira, and probably the Zika, have been badly affected. 



The drainage of swamps has also doubtless had an adverse effect on certain 
species, and in particular rails and crakes seem to be less common than 
previously. However, active swamp drainage appears to have ceased in the 
last two decades, at least in this area, if not elsewhere in Uganda and, as 
far as can be ascertained, the swamp habitats are now fairly stable. They 
continue to be important to visiting Palaearctic species. Throughout East 
Africa certain Palaearctic gulls, terns, ducks and waders are increasing their 
range, and are now being recorded in new areas including the Kampala region. 

The destruction of habitat such as thickets and bushed grassland is an 
ongoing process. However, it tends to be patchy, and attempts at settlement 
in new areas is often abandoned, and is quickly followed by regeneration of 
the vegetation. Overgrazing is not a big problem here, and cattle herds tend 
to be moved on before irreparable damage is done to the vegetation. The 
cutting of smaller trees, and also sometimes the larger ones for fuel is 
regrettably common. The smaller trees and thickets regenerate fairly rapidly, 
but the lightly wooded areas with large trees have been very adversely 
affected over the last 10 to 15 years. 

Certain species have become more urbanized in recent years, and are now 
established in many Kampala gardens. (See later.) 



TOPOGRAPHY 

Lake Victoria lies at 1134 m above sea level, and the relative relief of 
its northern shore in our area is low, being about 150 m. The highest point 
is at 1320 m. The north shore consists of a number of small flat- topped, or 
gently rounded hills and ridges, separated by broad, often papyrus-filled 
valleys. This broken hilly country slopes gradually away to the north, where 
it becomes flatter towards the Lake Kyoga complex of swamps. The shore of 
Lake Victoria itself consists of numerous rocky peninsulas with intervening 
papyrus-fringed bays. 



VEGETATION 

At one time the north shore of Lake Victoria west of the Nile supported an 
extensive forest belt, which linked up with the great forests of eastern Zaire 
via the forests of western Uganda. However, increasing settlement in the area 
in historical times, and the resulting destruction of forest has resulted in 
significant changes in the vegetation. The original forest remains in a few 
relatively small patches such as Mabira, Mpanga and Kifu. 

The papyrus-choked bays of the lake shore are often edged with trees, 
forming a broken belt of varying widths. The trees may be fairly large and 
the undergrowth extensive. These belts are sometimes a mere fringe only a few 
metres wide, but in other places they form forest patches, or small forests 
which are frequently swampy in nature e.g. Zika. 

The rocky promontories support only a thin cover of vegetation. This 
consists mostly of knee-high grass and scattered thickets often surrounding 
termite mounds. There is usually fringing papyrus, or other vegetation at 
the water's edge, but large trees are few. 

Inland away from the lake, the flat- topped hills are usually bare of large 
trees, but support grass and thickets. Between the hills the fingers of 
papyrus swamp reach throughout the area. Often the smaller swamps have been 
drained, and cultivation occupies the valley bottoms and climbs part way up 
the hillsides. Typically, forest remnants occur throughout in small patches 



fringing the swamps in the valleys. In the north the tendency is for the land 
to become flatter, and the areas of grass more extensive, with increasing 
acacia woodland. 

Cultivation has continued in ever increasing amounts. The main victims of 
this are the open woodland and thicket habitats. How serious is the destruct- 
ion of true forest habitat is not accurately known, but it is certain that 
round the edges of the forests chopping for firewood and charcoal, and clearing 
for cultivation is widespread and unchecked. The thickets regenerate fairly 
rapidly, and regenerating and degraded woodland interspersed with cultivation, 
grassland and papyrus swamps are the main features of this area. 



HABITATS 

FOREST Mabira Forest is the largest, and only moist semi-deciduous forest in 
the area. All other forests are moist evergreen, though the distinction 
between the two is not great here. There is considerable undergrowth consist- 
ing of herbs and shrubs in all the forests. Many forests, including Mabira 
have swamp forest communities within them, and there are many forest streams 
throughout . 

In addition to these blocks of forest there are many forest remnants, which 
are often found round the edges of the main forest areas, and also border the 
swamps. There are also numerous patches of woodland, and fairly extensive 
stands of trees which rarely contain any large trees, and which merge into bush, 

GRASSLAND AND THICKET this bushed and wooded grassland forms an important 
habitat and covers most of this area. Cultivation, if left untended gradually 
reverts to this type. Thickets are often formed surrounding termite mounds, 
and consist largely of woody shrubs and small trees. Large trees are few in 
this environment. Cutting for fuel tends to be concentrated on these thickets, 
which are often cut right back until the area is almost cleared. Fortunately 
the rate of regeneration of such thickets is fast, and they quickly recover. 

SWAMPS though many swamps have been drained since Jackson wrote (1938) papyrus 
swamps are still very extensive. It seems that reed swamps were more common 
in earlier decades, especially on the Entebbe peninsula. Nowadays nearly all 
swamps are papyrus Cyperus , but some Miscanthidium swamps also occur. Most 
papyrus swamps are dense, with very few breaks in the cover. The occasional 
open swamp with mudbanks and muddy beaches form a very important habitat, 
especially for visiting Palaearctic waders . These stretches of open shallow 
water within a swamp often sustain floating vegetation, such as water-lilies, 
and other floating macrophytes . Fortunately these swamps are interfered with 
very little. 

SANDY BEACHES the narrow sandy beaches on Entebbe peninsula, and particularly 
near the Airport form an important habitat for certain Palaearctic waders and 
plovers, and many species have been recorded there. 

OFFSHORE ISLANDS not much work has been done on these islands recently. 

In the past they used to be important breeding sites, and probably still are. 

OPEN WATER very few birds are seen on the open waters of the Lake. Some 
species make use of the quiet bays, and the shallow open water in certain 
swamps. Dead trees, the result of a rise in the water level of the lake some 
20 years ago, are present in some of the bays and are used for roosting and 
perching. 

CULTIVATION this forms part of the forest/grassland/cultivation mosaic so 
characteristic of this part of Uganda. Most of this is subsistance or small 



scale farming, and the crops most often planted are banana, cassava, beans 
and maize. There are few places where large scale farming is carried out such 
as Namulonge and Lubowa. Generally, well tended cultivation supports few bird 
species. Rank and overgrown cultivation however attracts many. Kajansi Fish 
Farm with its muddy pools and shallow water forms a specialised type of 
cultivated habitat, and attracts many Palaearctic waders. 

URBAN HABITATS when it is realised that urban habitats are of such recent 
appearance in Africa, it is fascinating to consider the way in which so many 
species not only tolerate, but positively flourish in such an environment. 
As may be expected, Little Swifts Apus af finis and Striped Swallows Hirundo 
abyssinica nest on buildings. The former species was apparently unrecorded 
here in Jackson's day. But less obviously, Marabous Leptoptilos crumeniferus 
and Cattle Egrets Bubulcus ibis find food in urban rubbish dumps and, very 
recently, Open-billed Storks Anastomus lamelligerus have been observed in the 
vicinity of these rubbish dumps, and now breed in urban areas. Woodland and 
Striped Kingfishers Halcyon senegalensis and H. chelicuti , Bee-eaters 
Meropidae and Grey-backed Fiscals Lanius excubitorius all commonly use tele- 
graph wires as vantage points for observing prey. Ruppell's Long- tailed 
Glossy Starling Lamprotornis purpuropterus is now the urban starling here, 
and even such species as the Black and White Flycatcher Bias musicus is 
becoming urbanised. In the last decade the Red-chested Sunbird Nectarinia 
erythroceria has been observed by urban swimming pools. These are only a 
few examples of an interesting and continuing trend. 



CLIMATE 

The main factor affecting climate here is the presence of Lake Victoria. 
This has a great effect on rainfall which is directly related to proximity to 
the Lake. Rain occurs on average on 150 days of the year, and it is fairly 
well distributed throughout with two peaks, one in March to May (main rains) , 
and again in October and November. There are two relatively dry periods 
occurring between December and March, and again in June and July. Even in 
these dry periods there are frequent thunder storms, and some rain occurs in 
every month. The annual rainfall is 1500 mm at Entebbe and 1250 mm at Kampala. 
However, in any given year there may be considerable variation from the mean. 

There is little seasonal variation in temperature , and the diurnal variation 
is only about 7°C. 



ORDER AND NOMENCLATURE 

This follows Birds of East Africa (Britton (ed.) 1980). 



SOURCES OF DATA 

A bibliography is appended in two groups. Group A are those works cited 
in the species accounts, and Group B those works consulted but, generally, 
not cited in the species accounts. 

The literature has been combed fairly thoroughly, and most of the papers 
concerning this area have been read. 

Museum collections outside Uganda have not been examined, as this has 
proved impractical. 






Unpublished data of observers in this area, including personal observations, 
have been freely incorporated. 



SOURCES OF BIAS 

The uneven distribution of observers, especially in the last 10 years has 
led to under-recording in certain habitats, notably forests and areas away 
from the Lake shore. Conversely the lake shore swamps and areas near Kampala 
have been well worked. Also the absence of observers on leave during the 
European summer i.e. July and August results in fewer records for these months, 



DEFINITIONS AND ABBREVIATIONS 

First number = number used in Birds of East Africa (Britton (ed.) 1980). 
Second number = number used in African Handbook of Birds Series 1 
(Mackworth-Praed & Grant 1957, 1960) 
* = see Appendix B for further records. 

There follows in most of the species accounts a short statement of status. 
Res. = resident i.e. basically non-migratory, most individuals remain in the 
area throughout the year. 

Prob. = probably. This qualifies a statement, and is usually used when 
records are lacking. 

P. = Palaearctic. 

Pass. = passage. Used to qualify migrant. Said of a species which passes 
through this area both on its northerly (Palaearctic spring) and 
southerly (Palaearctic autumn) migrations. 

Mig. = migrant i.e. all or most individuals make regular seasonal movements 
between their breeding and wintering grounds. 

Loc. = local. Used to qualify migrant. Said of a species which moves short 
distances, often in response to rainfall, other climatic conditions or 
food supply. 

Intra- Afr. = intra- African. Used to qualify migrant. Said of a species 

which migrates fairly long distances in a regular manner, but does not 
leave Africa. 

WV. = winter visitor, implies from the Palaearctic winter. 

Wan. = wanderer. Said of a species which does not make the clear cut movement 
of a migratory species, but whose movements appear to be more or less 
random, perhaps influenced by food supply. 

Breeds = breeding records in this area, though not necessarily recent ones. 

There has been an attempt to quantify the records, however imperfectly, 
and distinction is made between the numbers of individuals seen, and frequency 
with which the species is seen. 



The following refer to numbers of individuals seen : 

Ab. = abundant 

Num. = numerous 

F. num. = fairly numerous 

Few = few 

The following refer to frequency with which the species is seen : 

REM = recorded in every month, with no obvious seasonal variations in 
numbers, unless otherwise stated. 

V. com. = very common. Very approximately can be seen almost every day, 

Com. = common. Very approximately can be seen almost every week. 

F. com. = fairly common. Seen from time to time. 

Uncom. = uncommon. About 10 - 15 records, some of them recent. 

Sc. = scarce. Fewer than 10 records, some of them recent. 

A species therefore can be described as com., few, which implies that there 
may be one or two individuals which can be seen regularly, as distinct from 
com., num., which implies many more individuals will be present. 

Lake = Lake Victoria 

Area covered is approximately 35 - 40 kilometres radius from Kampala, 
from Mpanga Forest in the west, to Namulonge in the north, Mabira 
Forest in the east, and including the whole of the Entebbe peninsula. 



References are given for all species classed as scarce or uncommon. 
As virtually all the species are mentioned in the references in Group B, 
these works have generally not been cited under References. Undated names 
refer to personal communications or other unpublished data. 

The last date for records is 31 December 1983, but a few particularly 
interesting records for the early months of 1984 are also included. 



Margaret Carswell , P.O. Box 151, Kampala, Uganda. 



Fig. 1 (opposite) . Map of the Kampala Area 



SPECIES RECORDED 



Family PODICIPEDIDAE Grebes 

4. Tachybaptus ruficollis capensis Little Grebe 4 

Com.-f.com., few, prob.res. & wan., breeds, REM - except July. 
Widespread throughout in swamps round the Lake shore, also in dams and 
pools inland where there is cover, especially during the rains in April, 
May and November. 

Family PELECANIDAE Pelicans 

11. Pelecanus onocrotalus White Pelican 31 
Sc. , few, wan., no breeding records. Recorded occasionally in January, 
February, October and November in swamps at Entebbe. Usually in small 
groups, but one large flock has been recorded. Refs : BNL 15, Ash, pers.obs, 

12. Pelecanus rufescens Pink -backed Pelican 32 
F. com., few, loc. , mig., no breeding records. Single birds, or small 
groups recorded from the Lake shore; also a few inland records. Seems to 
be fairly regular between August and April, with most records in January. 

Family PHALACROCORACIDAE Cormorants 

17. Phalacrocorax africanus Long-tailed Cormorant 27 
V. com., num., res., breeds, REM. Widespread along the Lake shore, and 

in swamps, sometimes in quite large numbers. Also occurs in small 
inland pools, where it is usually solitary. There is no clear migratory 
pattern in this area. 

18. Phalacrocorax carbo lucidus Greater Cormorant 25 
V. com., num., res., breeds, REM. Widespread all round the Lake shore, 
both singly and in fairly large numbers. Prefers larger stretches of 
water, and is not found in small pools and dams. There is no clearly 
marked migratory pattern, but numbers do vary erratically. 

Family ANHINGIDAE Darters 

19. Anhinga rufa rufa Darter 28 
Sc. , few, prob. res., breeds. Recorded at Entebbe (April, September, 
October) , Gaba (March, October) and Kisubu (July) . Usually singly, 
perched on dead trees at the Lake shore; also sometimes swimming in the 
bays. Prefers quiet Lake-side bays with fringing papyrus and reeds, 
with dead trees in the water. Apparently common in the past, but there 
have been no records during the last ten years. 

Family ARDEIDAE Herons, Bitterns, Egrets 
Sub- family Botaurinae 

23. Ixobrychus minutus payesii Little Bittern 50b 

Sc. , few, status unclear, prob.res., breeds. Very few recent records, 
but a bird of the race payesii was found dead in a swamp in Kampala in 
October, and there is a sight record from Kanyamusanga in April. Was 
perhaps more common in the past when it bred; old records at Busi, 
Entebbe (March to July, November and December) and Sezibwa. Local and 
skulking in habits, keeps well hidden in swampy vegetation. 
Refs: van Someren (1916 & 1922); BNL 2, 33; Zoology Museum 



Sub-family Ardeinae 

25. Ardea cinerea cinerea Grey Heron 33 
Com. f.num., perhaps res., REM. Local, and usually seen singly, but 
sometimes 5 or 6 will appear together in a favoured spot. Prefers 

small pools, with adjacent short grass, and is less often seen by the 
Lake shore. There is no proper breeding record, but Jackson (1938) 
quotes a probable record at Entebbe when a young bird was seen which 
still had downy tips to the feathers on the head. 

26. Ardea goliath Goliath Heron 35 
Com., few, res., breeds, REM. Local and always seen singly or in pairs 

in swamps and papyrus choked bays round the Lake shore . 

27. Ardea melanocephala Black-headed Heron 34 
V.com. , f.num., res., breeds, REM. Widespread throughout from central 
Kampala, where it is often seen on the grass verges after dark, to the 
Lake shore. Frequents short grass areas, playing fields and cultivation. 
The large colonies mentioned in the literature in central Kampala and 
Entebbe no longer exist, but there are still a few small colonies in the 
area. 

28. Ardea purpurea purpurea Purple Heron 36 
Com., few, res., breeds, REM. Seen singly or in pairs in most of the 
papyrus swamps round the Lake shore, and is often seen overhead. 

There is some evidence of seasonal movements in March and April, (Frankum) , 

30. Ardeola ralloides ralloides Squacco Heron 43 
V.com., num., res. & wan., breeds, REM. Widespread in most of the swamps. 
Some seasonal movements are apparent, and it moves to small inland pools, 
where there is suitable cover in the form of reeds , or other fringing 
vegetation, especially in February and March. 

31. Ardeola rufiventris Rufous-bellied Heron 47 
Uncom. , few, res., breeds, REM. Occurs in various papyrus swamps round 
the Lake shore , including Busi , Gaba , Mabamba , Waiya and inland at 
Kajansi. Usually singly or in pairs, but up to four seen together. 

Refs: Sharpe (1902); van Someren (1922); BNL 7, 20; Pearson; Frankum; 
pers.obs. 

32. Bubulcus ibis ibis Cattle Egret 42 
V.com., ab.-num., res. & loc.mig., breeds, REM. There is an increase in 
numbers in most years from September to February. Widespread, usually 

in flocks in grassy areas, often in association with native cattle. 
Also common on traffic round-abouts, and short grass verges in central 
Kampala, especially during November and December. Also frequents urban 
rubbish dumps where it feeds on the insects present. 

33. Butorides striatus atricapillus Green-backed Heron 45 
F.com., few, res., breeds, REM. Local, easily overlooked and possibly 
under-recorded. Requires bushes and small trees in the immediate 
vicinity of water, and occurs both at the Lake shore and at inland pools. 

34. Egretta alba melanorhynchos Great White Egret 37 
Com-f.com., f.num., no breeding records, and probably a non-breeding 
visitor, REM except July, but most records are for September to March. 
Occasional birds in May and June are in breeding dress. Usually seen 
singly, but up to 10 birds together (March) . Frequents swamps round 

Lake shore, and inland pools and wetlands. 



35. Egretta ardesiaca Black Heron 39 
Recorded only at Kajansi on 28 February 1981 (three birds), 29 February 

1981 (two birds), 31 October 1982 (four birds) and from 13 November to 
28 November 1982 (one or two birds). Refs: Sheldon; pers. obs. 

36. Egretta garzetta Little Egret 40 
Com., res., f.num., breeds, REM. Seen usually singly in many swamps, on 
Lake shore beaches, islands and shallow inland water. 

38. Egretta intermedia brachyrhyncha Yellow-billed Egret 38 
Com.-f.com., few, breeds, REM. Occurs usually singly in inland pools 

and swamps, and sometimes on Lake shore beaches. 

39. Gorsachius leuconotus White-backed Night Heron* 49 
Recorded in the literature at Entebbe. Refs: Anon (1950); Eggling (1951a). 

40. Nycticorax nycticorax nycticorax Night Heron 48 
Sc. , few, no breeding records. Has been recorded in the past at Entebbe, 
Kaazi and Kampala. Recently recorded at the Kabaka's Lake in Kampala, 
and there are records of night movements at Entebbe in February and March. 
The origin of birds seen here is not clear. They could be either Palae- 
arctic or East African breeders. A crepuscular species which inhabits 
dense vegetation overhanging water. Refs: BNL 4, 26. 

Family BALAENICIPITIDAE Shoebill 

41. Balaeniceps rex Shoebill 54 
F. com., few, res., breeds, REM. Frequents papyrus and reed swamps, 
especially on the Entebbe peninsula. Local but fairly regular, usually 
singly or in pairs, but up to 4 seen together, feeding on mudbanks and 

in shallow water, or soaring overhead. 

Family SCOPIDAE Hamerkop 

42. Scopus umbretta umbretta Hamerkop 53 
V.com., f.num., res., breeds, REM. Widespread, and can turn up almost 
anywhere there is water. Seen in quiet backwaters, pools, ditches and 

at the Lake shore. After heavy rain it appears at roadside puddles, 
and other flooded areas. Usually solitary, but occasionally several 
birds will congretate at a favoured site. 

Family CIC0NIIDAE Storks 
Sub-family Ciconiinae 

43. Anastomus lamelligerus lamelligerus Open-billed Stork 59 
V.com. -com., num. -f.num., prob.res. & partly mig., breeds, REM. 
Frequents swamps and marshy areas, but increasingly found in urban areas, 
especially near rubbish dumps. Usually seen singly or in small numbers, 
but from December to March flocks of up to 30 birds are not uncommon. 
There is a small colony, with Ardea melanocephala in suburban Kampala. 

44. Ciconia abdimii Abdim's Stork 58 
Com., num., intra-Afr .mig. , pass. mig. & non-breeding visitor. Records 
are from October to May, being especially common on passage from October/ 
early December, and February/early March when large flocks of several 
hundred are often seen. Widespread, but its appearance is erratic. In 
December 1965, December 1969, February 1971, 1972/73, 1978/79 and November 

1982 very large flocks were present. In other years the numbers were few. 
Found in open grassy areas with trees, from Kampala parks and gardens to 
playing fields and the Lake shore. In the past it was said to be present 



10 



at any time of the year, and to breed at Entebbe in April and May 
Jackson (1938). First date : 10 October; last date: 8 May. 

45. Ciconia ciconia ciconia White Stork* 55 
Uncom. , few, mainly P. mig., REM except January, August and October. 

Most records are for single birds from May to July and in November. 
It frequents open grassy areas, but is also seen overhead. Recorded 
at Entebbe, Gayaza, Kampala, Kisubi and Namulonge. The large flocks 
recorded in the past are no longer seen. Refs: BNL 10,12,14,18, 
21, 22, 24, 27, 29, 33, 34; Ash; pers. obs . 

46. Ciconia episcopus microcelis Woolly-necked Stork 57 
Sc, few, no breeding records. Seven records of stragglers in recent 
years, and dated records are for January, February, July and September. 
Usually occurs near water, and most records are for inland dams and 
streams. Recorded at Entebbe, Namulonge, Nkokonjeru (near) and over- 
head at Kampala. Refs: BNL 18, 23, 30; Ash; pers. obs. 

47. Ciconia nigra Black Stork 56 
P. WV. Two sight records only, one of an individual at Kajanai from 

24 October to 2 November 1969, and another at Namulonge on 13 December 
1971. Refs: BNL 3, 28. 

48. Ephippiorhynchus senegalensis Saddle-billed Stork 60 
F.com., few, prob.res. & breeds, but no definite breeding record, REM. 
Recorded in small numbers in most of the swamps round the Lake shore, 
seen on mudbanks, and at the water's edge. Birds have been seen carrying 
nesting material in April, and young birds are often seen. 

49. Leptoptilos crumeniferus Marabou 61 
V.com., num., res. & loc.mig. , breeds, REM. Old records indicate that 

in the past this bird was rarely seen except in the presence of locust 
swarms. In recent decades it has increased in numbers, and become an 
urban scavenger at rubbish dumps. In Kampala the January population has 
been estimated as 560 birds, the July population as 165 and the August 
population as 105, Pomeroy (1975) . 

Sub-family Mycteriinae 

50. Mycteria ibis Yellow-billed Stork 62 
F.com., few, status uncertain, no breeding records, REM except June, 

but most records are for October /November and for March. Young birds 
have been seen in February, March, May and October. There are indications 
that it may be becoming more common. Occurs by water in swamps and inland 
pools. 

Family THRESKIORNITHIDAE Ibises, Spoonbills 
Sub-family Threskiornithinae 

51. Bostrychia hagedash brevirostris Hadada 65a 
V.com., num., res., breeds, REM. Widespread throughout in pairs and 
small groups in short grass areas, ranging from the Lake side to 

urban lawns. 

53. Plegadis falcinellus falcinellus Glossy Ibis 68 

Sc, P. or intra-Afr.mig. Two records of single birds in wetlands at 
Namulonge (17 January 1971) and Mabamba (7 March 1981), and one of 3 
birds at Mabamba (11 March 1981). Refs: BNL 17; Sheldon; pers. obs. 



11 



54. Threskiornis aethiopica aethiopica Sacred Ibis 63 
F.com., few, loc.mig. or wan., no breeding records, REM except March, 
June and August. Usually seen in small numbers in wet or flooded areas 
especially during the rains i.e October/November and April. 

Sub-family Plataleinae - 

55. Platalea alba African Spoonbill 70 
Sc. , wan., no breeding records. One dated record of 3 birds in a muddy 
channel in Kampala on 5 February 1969, and an undated record also for 
Kampala. Refs: Hopkins (1946); Frankum. 

56. Platalea leucorodia leucorodia Eurasian Spoonbill 69a 
There are sight records of a single bird, presumably the same individual 

at Kajansi on 4 July and 31 October 1982, throughout November and December 
1982 up to 18 January 1983, also on 18 March 1983. Refs: Sheldon; pers.obs. 

Family ANATIDAE Ducks, Geese 
Sub- family Anserinae 

59. Dendrocygna bicolor Fulvous Whistling Duck 95 
F.com., num., loc.mig. & non-breeding visitor. Records for September 

to April, and a single June record. Mostly in small flocks of 5-10, but 
sometimes up to 100, in swamps and mudbanks round the Lake shore. Less 
common than the next species, though often in company with it. 

60. Dendrocygna viduata White-faced Whistling Duck 94 
Com.-f.com., ab.-num., loc.mig., no breeding records REM except August. 
Unpredictable, but records are mostly from September to April. Usually 

in flocks of 30 or more; occasionally in excess of 100. Often associates 
with the last species, and frequents quiet backwaters, reedy bays and mud- 
banks round the Lake shore. Occasionally occurs inland. 

Sub- family Anatinae 

61. Alopochen aegyptiacus Egyptian Goose 99 
Uncom. , few, prob.res. , breeds, REM except February, April and August. 
Usually in pairs or small numbers in short grass near the Lake at 
Entebbe Airport, Gaba, Lutembe and on off-shore islands. Appears to 

have become more scarce in the last few decades. Refs: van Someren 
(1911 and 1916); Eggling (1951a); BNL 15, 17; Nest Record; Ash; pers.obs. 

62. Anas acuta acuta Pintail 92 

Sc. , P. WV. Recorded at Mabamba on 15 November 1981 (3 birds) , and on 
31 January 1982 (at least 70 birds) . Also a single drake at Kajansi on 
18 January, 24 January and 5 February 1983. Refs: Sheldon; pers.obs. 

67. Anas hottentota Hottentot Teal 90 

Sc. , few, wan., no breeding records. Recorded from swamps, including 
Mabamba in January, April and September, and an undated record for 
Entebbe. Refs: Sharpe (1902); BNL 13; pers.obs. 

69. Anas querquedula Garganey 88 

Uncom., few, P. WV or pass.mig. The commonest Palaearctic duck recorded 
here, though still uncommon. Most records are for Mabamba of single birds 
in October and November. Also small flocks of 10-15 in January, February 
and March, with up to 19 together on 11 March 1981. Found in quiet 
shallow backwaters and reedy bays round the Lake shore. Also recorded 
inland at Kajansi and Namulonge. Like A. acuta is perhaps becoming more 
common. Refs: BNL 15; Sheldon; pers.obs. 



12 



72. Anas undulata undulata Yellow-billed Duck 83a 

Com., f.num., prob.res., no breeding records, REM. Present usually in 
small numbers in swampy bays round the Lake Shore? occasionally up to 
20 together. Sometimes on inland waters. 

77. Nettapus auritus African Pygmy Goose 97 

F.com., few, res., breeds, REM. Prefers bays with floating vegetation, 
and reed and papyrus fringed shores. Has not been recorded inland. 
Usually in pairs, or small family groups on the water; not seen on mud- 
banks. 

79. Plectopterus gambensis Spur-winged Goose 100 
Com.-f.com., few, status unclear, perhaps res. & wan. or loc.mig., 

no breeding records, REM. The commonest goose here, though its 
presence is unpredictable. Seen on mudbanks, in swamps and bays round 
the Lake shore, and occasionally on inland waters. Usually in small 
numbers, but up to 25 together. 

80. Sarkidiornis melanotos melanotos Knob-billed Duck 98 
F.com., few, status unclear, perhaps res. & wan. or loc.mig., no 
breeding records, REM except April, September and November, but mostly 
seen from January to March. Usually in small numbers round the Lake 
shore, but sometimes up to 30; also recorded at inland pools and dams. 

82. Thalassornis leuconotus leuconotus White-backed Duck 74 

Sc, no breeding records. One recent record of 6 birds at Mabamba on 
11 March 1981. May have been commoner in earlier decades when it was 
recorded at Busi and Entebbe. Refs: Sheldon; pers.obs. 

Family ACCIPITRIDAE Birds of Prey 
Sub-family Aegypiinae 

84. Gypohierax angolensis Palm-nut Vulture 161 
V. com. -com., f.num., res., breeds, REM. Fairly regular in central 
Kampala, and is widespread throughout in association with oil palms 

(Elaeis sp.). Was unrecorded here as recently as 1950 (Pitman). 

85. Gyps africanus African White-backed Vulture 107 
Sc. , few, wan. Recorded occasionally over Kampala, but is more 
usually associated with open acacia country and game parks. There is 

an old breeding record near Entebbe. Refs: Nest Record; Pearson. 

87. Neophron monachus pileatus Hooded Vulture 111 
V.com., ab., res., breeds, REM. The common urban vulture; widespread, 
frequents rubbish dumps , dustbins and markets in Kampala and Entebbe , 

as well as villages and rural areas throughout. Pomeroy (1975) gives 
the population of Kampala as constant at just over 200. 

88. Neophron percnopterus Egyptian Vulture 110 
Sc. , few, wan. Occasionally recorded over Kampala in November and 
August, but more typically occurs in drier country away from the Lake. 
Refs: Allen & Fripp (1964); Frankum; Pearson. 

90. Trigonoceps occipitalis White-headed Vulture 109 

Sc. , few, wan. Occasional stragglers recorded over Kampala and Entebbe, 
but more normally occurs in open plains with game animals. Ref : Pearson. 



13 



Sub-family Circinae 

92. Circus aeruginosas aeruginosus Eurasian Marsh Harrier 184a 
F.com. , few, P.WV &. possible pass.mig. Records from September to April, 
with more records in November and March. Usually seen flying low, 

singly or in pairs , in low-lying grassy areas and swamps , both near the 
Lake and away from it. First date : 9 September; last date : 18 April j 
but Jackson (1938) mentions a May record. 

93. Circus macrourus Pallid Harrier 183 
Sc, few, P.V7V. Recent dated records are for October, November and 
January in open grassy areas at Entebbe and Namulonge. May have 

become more scarce in the last few decades, as Jackson (1938) implies 
that it was not uncommon by the Lake shore. Ref s : Jackson (1914); 
BNL 5, 15, 26. 

94. Circus pugargus Montagu's Harrier 182 
Recorded in the literature at Entebbe from November to March. 

95. Circus ranivorus African Marsh Harrier 184b 
Com., f. num. -few, prob.res. & breeds, REM. Widespread, and usually 

seen singly or in pairs by the Lake shore, particularly over swamps. 
Also recorded inland in damp low-lying areas . 

Sub-family Polyboroidinae 

96. Polyboroides radiatus tupus Harrier Hawk 185 
V. com. -com., f.num., breeds, res., REM. Has become more common and 
widespread during the last 10 years. Often now seen near oil palms 

{Elaeis sp.), where it feeds on the nuts, and is common in suburban 
Kampala where these palms are present. Also seen near weaver colonies. 

Sub-family Circaetinae 

97. Circaetus cinerascens Banded Snake Eagle 157 
Uncom.-sc, few, no breeding records, REM except January, October and 
December. Few records of single birds in open Lake shore habitat, 

with large trees at Entebbe, Kaazi , Lutembe and Mabamba. Refs: BNL 12, 
13; Ash; Sheldon; pers.obs. 

98. Circaetus cinereus Brown Snake Eagle 153 
F.com., few, prob.res., no breeding records, REM. Fairly widespread 

by the Lake shore and inland open grassy areas with tall trees. 
Usually seen soaring overhead, singly or in pairs, sometimes even on 
the outskirts of Kampala. 

100. Circaetus gallicus pectoralis Black-chested Snake Eagle 154 
Uncom.-sc, few, no breeding records. Recorded mostly from Lake shore 
habitat at Dewe (February), Entebbe, Gaba (November), Kajansi (March, 
May), Kampala, Kyetume and Lutembe (May, June, August). 

Refs: van Someren (1932); BNL 7, 18; Ash; Pearson; Sheldon; pers.obs. 

101. Terathopius ecaudatus Bateleur 159 
Uncom. , few, wan., no breeding records, REM except June and November. 
Recorded occasionally at Busi, Kajansi, Kampala, Kisubi, Kyetema, Lubowa, 
Lutembe, Mabamba, Mabira and Mukono. Refs: van Someren (1916); BNL 5,12 
13,21,27,29,32; Ash; pers.obs. 



14 



Sub- family Accipitrinae 

102. Accipiter badius sphenurus Shikra 176a 

Com.-f.com., f .num. , res., breeds, REM. Widespread throughout in 
gardens, open woodland and stands of trees. Usually keeps well hidden, 
but occasionally perches on exposed branches, or on telegraph wires. 

106. Accipiter melanoleucus melanoleucus Great Sparrowhawk 174 
F.com.-uncom. , few, prob.res. & breeds. Dated records are for October 

to March and in May. Local, seen occasionally in open forest, woodland 
and gardens with many trees. May be under-recorded. 

107. Accipiter minullus minullus Little Sparrowhawk 170 
Uncom.-sc, few, no breeding records. Dated records for March, June, August 
and October. May be under-recorded. Local, and usually keeps well 

hidden in the middle of dense foliage in clumps of medium-sized trees, 
and woodland patches. Recorded at Kampala, Kisubi, Mukono and Namulonge. 
Refs: Hopkins (1946); Allen & Fripp (1964)"; BNL 7,34; Pearson; pers.obs. 

109. Accipiter ovampensis Ovampo Sparrowhawk 172 
Two records for Kampala when specimens were obtained in December 1939. 

In East Africa as a whole it is a rare bird, and possibly a migrant, 
or wanderer. Ref : Hopkins (1946) . 

110. Accipiter rufiventris rufiventris Rufous Sparrowhawk 173a 
One record in the literature for "near Kampala" on 8 February 1940; 

and one sight record in June 1971 in Kampala. Refs: Hopkins (1946); 
Mann (1971); Pearson. 

111. Accipiter tachiro sparsimfasciatus African Goshawk 177b 
Com., f .num. , res., breeds, REM. Usually seen singly or in pairs. Widespre 
in gardens with large and medium-sized trees, in patches of forest and 

in woodland. Rarely seen circling overhead. 

115. Aquila pomarina pomarina Lesser Spotted Eagle* 141 
Sc. , P.mig. Sight records at Namulonge in October, January and 
February. Its presence requires confirmation. Refs: BNL 6, 17, 26. 

116. Aquila rapax belisarius Tawny Eagle 139b 
Sc. , few, wan., no breeding records. Sight records at Namulonge in 
January, March and October and Entebbe in October. Common in the drier 
areas away from the Lake. Refs: BNL 17, 19, 26; Ash. 

118. Aquila wahlbergi Wahlberg's Eagle 142 

F.com., few, status uncertain, prob.res. & pass.mig, breeds, REM except 
January and May, but most records are for March and October/November. 
Fairly widespread in open woodland, and well wooded grassland. The 
pale phase has been recorded here once. Migratory, and elsewhere in 
Africa has been observed moving north between late January and early 
March, and moving south again between mid- July and early September. 

120. Buteo augur augur Augur Buzzard 167a 

Sc. , wan., no breeding records. Recorded in the literature for Entebbe, 
and two recent sight records for Kikaya (September) and Kisubi 
(February). Refs: BNL 13, 31. 

122. Buteo buteo vulpinus Steppe Buzzard 163 

Com., ab.-f.num., P.WV & autumn pass.mig. Most records are for October, 
and all big flocks are for October and early November, mostly by the Lake 
shore. Its presence is erratic; in 1967, 1971, 1974, 1975 and 1983 very 
large flocks numbering hundreds or thousands were seen in October. In 
other years smaller flocks were present, and it is widespread from Kampala 



15 



to the Lake shore in small numbers from September to March. First 
date : 21 September; last date : 22 March. 

125. Hieraaetus africanus Cassin's Hawk Eagle 

One sight record for Mabira. Ref : Hamel (1980) 

126. Hieraaetus dubius Ayres' Hawk Eagle 144 
Sc. , few, no breeding records. Recorded at Entebbe (October, November), 
Kampala (May, December) , Kifu (July) and Namulonge (July) . Usually a 
resident of forest patches and adjacent open countryside. Refs: Hopkins 
(1946); BNL 24, 35; Hamel (1980); Ash. 

127. Hieraaetus pennatus pennatus Booted Eagle 1.45 
Sc. , P.WV. Dated sight records for Namulonge on 8 October 1971, at 

Gaba on 21 December 1980 and 17 January 1982 and one at Entebbe on 
17 October 1983, also one undated sight record for the outskirts of 
Kampala. May be overlooked. Occurs in open grass country with 
cultivation and tall trees. Refs: BNL 26; Sheldon; pers. obs. 

128. Hieraaetus spilogaster African Hawk Eagle 143 
Uncom. , few, breeds. Recorded in the literature at Entebbe (September, 
October) and Kampala. Recent sight records for Mabira (April) , Entebbe 

(July), Mukono (May) and Kampala and Kifu (undated). Refs: Allen & 
Fripp (1964); BNL 21, 32; Hamel (1980); Nest Record; Ash. 

129. Kaupifalco monogrammicus Lizard Buzzard 150 
V. com. -com., f .num. , res., breeds, REM. Widespread and found throughout 
usually singly, from urban gardens to open woodland and bush. Keeps 

well hidden usually, but occasionally perches on exposed branches or 
telegraph poles. 

130. Lophaetus occipitalis Long-crested Eagle 149 
Com., f. num., res., breeds, REM. Widespread and occurs in suburban 
Kampala as well as in open woodland and cultivation. Usually seen 
singly, but on occasions several individuals will congregate together. 

131. Melierax gabar Gabar Goshawk* 178 
Uncom., few, prob.res. , breeds, REM except January, April, August and 
October. Occurs Entebbe, Kampala, Katalemwa, Kikaya and Namulonge. 
Local, typically occurs in tall trees among cultivation and open 
country. There are a few records for the melanistic phase. 

Refs: Allen & Fripp (1964); BNL 6,7,15,16,17,33,34,41,60; Nest Record; 
Ash; pers. obs. 

134. Polemaetus bellicosus Martial Eagle 146 
Sc. , breeds. Recorded in the literature "in fair numbers" at Entebbe 

and Kyetema(May) and as nesting in Kyagwe in November. One recent sight 
record of two birds on the Entebbe road on 22 February 1970. 
Refs: van Someren (1916 & 1932); BNL 6. 

135. Stephanoaetus coronatus Crowned Eagle 147 
Sc, few, breeds. Frequents the larger forests, and recorded at Entebbe, 
Kifu (March, July) , Kyagwe (October) , Mabamba (April) , Mabira (April) 

and Mukono (June). Refs: Sharpe (1902); BNL 3,23,31,32,34; Hamel (1980); 
Forbes-Watson; pers. obs. 

Sub- family Milvinae 

137. Haliaeetus vocifer Fish Eagle 160 

V.com., num., breeds, REM. Occurs singly or in pairs all round the 
Lake shore. Widespread, but not found away from the Lake. 



16 



138. Milvus migrans migrans and parasitus Black Kite 132a, 
V.com., ab., res., breeds, P & intra-Afr.mig. , REM. The race parasitus 

is both resident and an intra-African migrant. Common in every month, 
but there is a noticeable increase from September to March. The nominate 
Palaearctic race has been recorded occasionally during the Palaearctic 
winter, with one February record of 40 to 50 birds (BNL 18). Widespread 
and occurs throughout, including at urban rubbish dumps and markets. 

Sub-family Perninae 

139. Aviceda cuculoides verreauxii Cuckoo Hawk 130b 
Sc. , no breeding records. Not common anywhere in Africa, and the status 
here is obscure. Sight records at Kifu and Namulonge (June, September) . 
Refs: BNL 9,10,24; Hamel (1980). 

140. Pernis apivorus Honey Buzzard 135 
Sc, P.mig. Dated sight records for Entebbe (13 December 1969), 
Kampala (22 August 1970) and Mukono (10 March 1971). It may be over- 
looked. Occurs in cultivation, woodland and forest edge. Refs: BNL 4, 
12,19. 

Sub- family Eianinae 

142. Elanus caeruleus caeruleus Black- shouldered Kite 133 
Com., f.num., res., breeds, REM, but more records for December to March. 
Widespread singly or in pairs in open grassland and cultivation, often 
near the Lake. Also occurs in Kampala suburbs. 

Sub-family Macheiramphinae 

143. Macheiramphus alcinus anderssoni Bat Hawk 134 
Com., few., res., breeds, REM. Strictly crepuscular, and usually seen 
singly in the immediate vicinity of bat roosts. Up to 4 seen together. 
Although more often seen in urban Kampala, also occasionally recorded 

in rural areas. 

Family PANDIONIDAE Osprey 

144. Pandion haliaetus haliaetus Osprey 186 
F.com. , few, P.WV & pass.mig., REM. Fairly regular from October to 
April, when up to 3 birds seen together. Occasional single birds seen 

in other months. Occurs mostly by the Lake shore. There is no proper 
breeding record, but a photograph has been published of a nest on 
Lake Victoria "attributed" to this species, Hale-Carpenter (1920). 

Family FALCONIDAE Falcons 

146. Falco amurensis Eastern Red- footed Falcon 120 
One sight record for this passage migrant from the Eastern Palaearctic: 

a female at Kampala in April 1965. Refs: Mann (1973, 1976). 

147. Falco ardosiaceus Grey Kestrel 127 
F.com., few, res., breeds/ REM. Occurs singly in open country and 
cultivation with tall trees, and sometimes in urban or suburban Kampala. 
Crepuscular, and sometimes perches on telegraph poles. 

150. Falco chicguera ruficollis Red-necked Falcon 122 

Sc. A pair was resident in central Kampala from January to May 1972, 
and October 1972 to May 1973. They nested in a Borassus palm in 
January 1972 and 1973. Two birds were seen at the nest site in June 



17 



1974, but not subsequently. Other records for this area are for May 
and November at Namulonge. Refs: BNL 9,10,15; Pitman; pers.obs. 

152. Falco cuvieri African Hobby 116 

Com., f.num., res., breeds, REM. Widespread and occurs particularly 
in association with eucalyptus trees. In the evening single birds 
are frequently seen overhead in Kampala suburbs. 

156. Falco naumanni Lesser Kestrel 126 

One sight record of this Palaearctic species : 5 to 7 birds at 
Namulonge present for 2-3 weeks in March 1971. Ref: BNL 19. 

158. Falco peregrinus minor and perhaps calidus Peregrine Falcon 112a,d 

Uncom. , few, wan. & poss.P.WV., no breeding records, REM except June, 
with some increase in the winter months, which may be individuals of 
the Palaearctic race calidus. Most records are for central Kampala 
round tall buildings, but also recorded at Entebbe, Kajansi, Kakindu 
and Namulonge. Refs: Allen & Fripp (1964); BNL 9,10,12,14,15,17,18, 
26,45; Ash; Frankum; Pearson; Sheldon; pers.obs. 

160. Falco subbuteo subbuteo Hobby 115 
Uncom., few, pass.mig. & perhaps WV. Most records for March and April 
but also occasionally in September, November and late December. Seen 

at Bukasa, Entebbe, Kampala, Kikaya, Namulonge and Port Bell, Much 
less common than F. cuvieri, but occurs in similar habitat, and occasion- 
ally in company with it. First date : 19 September; last date: 24 March. 
Refs: BNL 5,7,24,31; Ash; Frankum; Pearson; pers.obs. 

161. Falco tinnunculus probably tinnunculus Kestrel 123a 
Uncom. -sc. , few, prob.P.WV & pass.mig. Records for October to April, 
mostly in November and March/April, at Entebbe, Kabanyolo, Kampala, 
Kyetema, Mabira and Namulonge. Refs: Jackson (1914); van Someren (1916); 
BNL 3,15,19; Frankum; Pearson. 

Family PHASIANIDAE Quails, Francolins 

164. Coturnix chinensis adansonii Blue Quail 213 
Sc. , status uncertain, no breeding records. Recorded in the literature at 
Entebbe, Kampala, Kyetema and Mpumu in January, February, May, June and 
July. Two recent records at Entebbe in January and February. 

Refs: Seth-Smith (1913);van Someren (1916); Ash; Pearson. 

165. Coturnix coturnix probably erlangeri Quail 211b 
Sc, no breeding records. Sight records for Kampala (June). Was 
introduced on to the Entebbe peninsula between 1920 and 1923. 

Refs: Allen & Fripp (1964); Frankum; Pitman. 

166. Coturnix delegorguei delegorguei Harlequin Quail 212 
Uncom. -sc, few, intra-Afr.mig. , breeds. Elsewhere in East Africa it 

is known to migrate in large numbers. Evidence of nocturnal movements 
is provided here by single birds attracted to lighted windows in central 
Kampala in September and November (twice) . Also recorded at Entebbe in 
January, March, April and December. Refs: Nest Record; Ash; Frankum; 
Volrath; pers.obs. 

167. Francolinus afer cranchii Red-necked Spurfowl 2Q8h 
Recorded in the past at Kyetema and Kyetume (breeding April. 

Was introduced on to the Entebbe peninsula between 1920 and 1923. 
Refs: Nest Record; Pitman. 



18 






172. Francolinus icterorhynchus dybowskii Heuglin's Francolin 201b 

Uncom.-sc, few, breeds. Recorded in the past at Entebbe, Kampala, 
Kasaala, Kyetema and Mpumu. Recent sight records at Lutembe (May, 
June) and Entebbe (April, May, October, November). Was introduced 
on to the Entebbe peninsula between 1920 and 1923. 

Refs: van Someren (1914 & 1916); BNL 21; Nest Record; Ash; Pitman; 
pers . obs . 

174. Francolinus lathami schubotzi Forest Francolin 189 

Recorded in the literature at Mabira in January and October, breeds; 
Kifu (unconfirmed). Refs: van Someren (1914; 1916; 1922); Hamel (1980); 
Britton (ed) (1980) . 

176. Francolinus levaillantii kikuyuensis Red-winged Francolin 199 

Recorded in the literature from near Entebbe, and at Kisubi and Mpumu; 
no breeding records. Refs: Ogilvie-Grant (1910); Seth-Smith (1913); 
van Someren (1914; 1916; 1922). 

178. Francolinus nahani Nahan's Francolin 190 

Recorded in the literature at Mabira in January and December; no breed- 
ing records. Refs: van Someren (1916; 1922); Hamel (1980). 

184. Francolinus squamatus schuetti Scaly Francolin 204a 

Com., f .num. , res., breeds, REM. The only common francolin, it is 
widespread, including the outer Kampala suburbs. Typically occurs 
in overgrown cultivation, rough bush and open woodland. 

Family NUMIDIDAE Guineafowls 

188. Guttera edouardi sethsmithi Crested Guineafowl 217d 

Sc. , few. Recorded for Kifu and Mabira (breeds) in April, July and 
October. May be more common than the few records suggest. 
Refs: van Someren (1916 and 1922); BNL 14,23; Hamel (1980); Nest Record. 

190. Numida meleagris major Helmeted Guineafowl 215-216 

F.com., few, res., breeds, REM. Widespread in small numbers in areas 
of bushed grassland. Most often on the rocky and grassy areas on the 
Entebbe peninsula, and in grassy areas inland. At one time used to 
occur in the Kampala suburbs. 

Family TURNICIDAE Button Quails 

192. Turnix hottentota nana Black-rumped Button Quail 366 
Recorded in the literature for Entebbe (October, breeding) , Kyetema 

and Mpumu. Refs: Seth-Smith (1913); van Someren (1916). 

193. Turnix sylvatica lepurana Button Quail 365 
There is one sight record of two birds at Lutembe on 3 October 1983. 
Ref: Ash. 

Family GRUIDAE Cranes 

194. Balearica pavonina gibber iceps Crowned Crane 245b 
V. com. -com. , f .num. , res., breeds, REM. Widespread usually in pairs, 
small groups, and occasionally in large numbers especially from 

October to February. Frequents grassland and cultivation. 



19 



Family RALLIDAE Rails, Crakes 

There are few records for many members of this family, which may not 
reflect their true status. They are almost certainly under recorded, 
especially those in the genus Porzana and Sarothrura . The emphasis 
in recent decades has moved away from collecting specimens , towards 
sight records. This poses particular difficulties with skulking 
species inhabitating dense vegetation. 

Sub- family Rallinae 

196. Crex crex Corncrake 223 
P.pass.mig. Recorded in the literature for the Entebbe area, in grass 
and short scrub, in November, February, March and April. 
Refs: Ogilvie-Grant (1910); Anon (1950). 

197. Crex egregia African Crake 224 
Sc. , no breeding records. Recorded in the literature at Entebbe and 
Kampala (January) . There is also a specimen from Kampala dated 
20 December 1961, and a recent sight record at Entebbe in December. 
Refs: Zoology Museum; Ash. 

198. Gallinula angulata Lesser Moorhen 240 
Sc, status unclear, no breeding records. The only dated records are 

for June at Busi and Namulonge, also recorded at Kajansi (March) . Published 
reports that it occurs throughout the year at Entebbe are unconfirmed. 
Elsewhere in East Africa it is known to be an intra-African migrant. 
Inhabits reed and papyrus swamps. Refs: BNL 22; Britton (ed. ) (1980); 
Ash; Pearson; Sheldon. 

199. Gallinula chloropus meridional is Common Moorhen 239b 
Sc, few, prob.res., breeds. Dated records for January, March, April, May, 
November and December at Busi, Entebbe and Namulonge. Almost certainly 
under recorded. Inhabits reedy pools, small dams, quiet bays and swamps. 
Refs: BNL 8,15,27; Nest Record; Ash. 

201 . Limnocorax flavirostra Black Crake 225 
V.com., num., res., breeds, REM. Widespread throughout, usually 
singly, or in pairs or small groups. Frequents open papyrus, reed 
swamps and Lake shore bays, especially where there is floating 
vegetation. 

202. Porphyrio alleni Allen's Gallinule 238 
Sc, few, breeds. Apparently not uncommon in the past, but few recent 
records. Found in papyrus swamps and reeds at Busi, Entebbe, Gaba, 
Kaazi and Mabira (September). Refs: van Someren (1916); Pearson. 

203. Porphyrio porphyrio madagascariensis Purple Gallinule 237 
Com.-f.com., few, res., breeds, REM except May, July, August and October. 
Widespread in small numbers in swamps and bays with floating vegetation, 
all round the Lake shore. 

204. Porzana marginal is Striped Crake 226 
Intra- Af r. mig. , no breeding records. One sight record at Namulonge in 
July. Published reports that it occurs from July to November are 
unconfirmed. Occurs in swamps, dams and wet grass. Refs: BNL 11; 
Britton (ed.) (1980). 

206. Porzana porzana Spotted Crake 227 

P. mig. Recorded in the literature at Kampala from November to April. 
Inhabits swamps and wet grasslands. 



20 



208. Rallus caerulescens African Water Rail 222 

One sight record at Lutembe in February. Ref: BNL 6. 

211. Sarothrura elegans Buff-spotted Pygmy Crake 236 

Sc, status unclear, no breeding records, almost certainly under 
recorded. Swampy forest dweller recorded in the past in Kyagwe and 
Kyetema, and probably at Kifu in recent years, also Mabira (unconfirmed). 
In other parts of East Africa it is known to be a migrant. 
Refs: van Someren (1916); BNL 26,31,32; Britton (ed.) (1980); Hamel (1980) 

213. Sarothrura pulchra centralis White-spotted Pygmy Crake 235 
F.com., perhaps f .num. , prob.res. & breeds, REM except February to 
April. Inhabits swamp forest, and long swampy grass. Recorded at 
Entebbe, Kajansi, Kifu, Kyetema, Mabira, Mpumu and Zike. Almost 
certainly more common than these records suggest. 

214. Sarothrura rufa rufa Red-chested Pygmy Crake 233 
Recorded in the literature at Kampala, Kyagwe, Kyetema and Kyetume. 
There is said to be a specimen in the British Museum from near Kampala. 
Refs: van Someren (1916; 1922; 1932). 

Family HELIORNITHIDAE Finfoots 

216. Podica senegalensis senegalensis African Finfoot 243 

Uncom.-sc, few, prob.res., no breeding records. Local secretive and 
easily overlooked, but there are many sight records pre-1972. Found 
on the Lake shore where there is dense cover coming down to the water, 
at Busi, Entebbe, Gaba, Kaazi, Kisubi and Lutembe in January to April, 
July, August and November. There are no records for the last ten years. 
Refs: BNL 6,7,8,13,17,20,21,27,29,31,35; Frankum; Pearson; Pitman. 

Family OTIDIDAE Bustards 

218. Eupodotis melanogaster Black-bellied Bustard 258 

Uncom. , few, breeds. Recorded in grassy areas at Entebbe (January, 
February, June, November) , Lutembe (May, August) , Mpumu and Namulonge 
(April, October) . Was apparently introduced on to the Entebbe peninsula 
between 1920 and 1023. Refs: Ogilvie-Grant (1910); Seth-Smith (1913); 
BNL 8,14; Ash; Pearson; Pitman; Sheldon. 

Family JACANIDAE Jacanas 

225. Actophilornis africanus Jacana 264 
V.com., num., res., breeds, REM. Widespread in swamps, especially 
where there is floating vegetation and plentiful cover. Also occurs 

in suitable inland pools. 

226. Microparra capensis Lesser Jacana 265 
Com.-f.com., few, prob.res., no breeding records. Local, but now 
fairly regular at Mabamba where there has been a gradual increase 

in the floating water-lily. This is a habitat preferred by this species. 
Dated records for January, April, May, June and November 

Family ROSTRATULIDAE Painted Snipe 

227. Rostratula benghalensis benghalensis Painted Snipe 297 
Sc. , few, no breeding records. An undated specimen from Port Bell and 
sight records at the dam at Namulonge on 5 July 1970, and several times 
during December 1970 constitute the only records. It inhabitats swamp 
and wet grassland. Refs: BNL 11,17; Zoology Museum. 



21 



Family HAEMATOPODIDAE Oystercatchers 

228. Haematopus ostralegus probably longipes Oystercatcher 294 
One record in the literature for this Palaearctic migrant at Entebbe 

on 20 March 1915. Ref: Meinertzhagen (1922). 

Family CHARADRIIDAE Plovers 

229. Charadrius alexandrinus alexandrinus Kentish Plover 269 
One record in the literature of a single adult at Entebbe on 16 March 
1950. Ref: Anon (1950). 

230. Charadrius asiaticus Caspian Plover 277 
Sc, few, P.pass.mig. Recorded in the past in small numbers from August 
to November at Entebbe, Mabira and Mpumu. Recent records of single 
birds at Namulonge on 29 November 1970 and 2 March 1971. Frequents 
short grass, burnt grass and sometimes swampy areas. Ref s : Jackson 

(1913); van Someren (1916) ; Anon. (1950) ; Eggling (1951a); BNL 15,19. 

231. Charadrius dubius curonicus Little Ringed Plover 267 
Uncom.-sc, few, P.WV. Few records only at Entebbe, Kajansi and Mabamba 
from November to March. On 4 December 1950 thirty-five birds were 
present at Entebbe. Inhabits swamps, Lake shore beaches, mud-banks 

and muddy inland pools. First date: 15 November; last date: 16 March. 
Ref s : Anon. (1950); Eggling (1951a); Frankum; Sheldon; pers.obs. 

233. Charadrius hiaticula tundrae Ringed Plover 266 
Com., f .num. , P.WV. & pass.mig. Widespread singly, or in small numbers 
from September to May, but larger numbers present in March. Recorded 
from Lake Shore beaches, mudbanks and muddy inland pools. 

First date: 1 September; last date: 9 May. 

234. Charadrius leschenaultii Great Sandplover 275 
One sight record of this Palaearctic migrant at Entebbe on 25 September 
1966. Refs: Pearson, (1972a) ; Mann (1976). 

235. Charadrius marginatus tenellus White-fronted Sandplover 268a 
Sc. Records are for September and December at Entebbe, with up to 8 
birds seen together. Refs: BNL 28; Pearson. 

238. Charadrius pecuarius pecuaris Kittlitz's Sandplover 271 
Sc. , few, status uncertain, perhaps loc.mig., breeds. Recorded 
occasionally in small numbers on open Lake shore beaches and mudbanks. 
There are few recent dated records at Entebbe (June, July (3), October), 
Kakindu (June) and Namiro (May) . Was apparently commoner in the past 
when present from May to November at Entebbe. Refs: Anon (1950); 
Eggling (1951a); BNL 9,10,22; Nest Record; Ash; Pearson; pers.obs. 

239. Charadrius tricollaris tricollaris Three-banded Plover 272 
Recorded in the literature at Entebbe. Frequents rocky and sandy shore. 

241. Pluvialis squatarola Grey Plover* 279 

There are sight records of this Palaearctic migrant of single birds at 
Entebbe on 16 April 1966, 17 April 1966 and 20 August 1983 and at Kakindu 
on 12 March 1983. Refs: Ash; Pearson; pers.obs. 

245. Vanellus crassirostris crassirostris Long-toed Plover 293a 

V.com., num., res., breeds, REM. Fairly widespread on mudbanks and 
swamps, usually on the larger stretches of water where there is plenty 
of fringing and floating vegetation. 



22 



246. Vanellus lugubris Senegal Plover 282 

F.com., few, perhaps intra-Afr. or loc.mig., breeds., REM. Recorded 
in small numbers with most records for March and September to December, 
in short grass areas, especially on the Entebbe peninsula. 

248. Vanellus senegallus lateralis Wattled Plover* 291b 
Uncom. , few, no breeding records, REM except February and March. 
Occasional pairs are seen in short grass areas and swamp edge on the 
Entebbe peninsula. Refs: Pearson; Sheldon; pers.obs. 

249. Vanellus spinosus Spur-winged Plover 286 
Sc. , no breeding records. Recorded at the Lake shore and swamps. One 
undated specimen from Kampala. Refs: Zoology Museum; Pearson. 

250. Vanellus superciliosus Brown-chested Wattled Plover 288 
A single specimen was collected at Kampala in either 1945 or 1946. 

Ref: Pitman. 

Family SCOLOPACIDAE Sandpipers, Snipes 
Sub-family Tringinae 

252. Actitis hypoleucos Common Sandpiper 312 
V.com., f.num., P.WV & pass.mig. Recorded from July to May with a small 
autumn and spring passage . Widespread from muddy Lake shore beaches , 
swamps and short grass to ditches and small inland pools. Usually singly 
but sometimes in small numbers. It is of interest that there is a 
breeding record not far from here at Buddu, when an incubating bird was 
photographed in 1911. In this same paper it is implied that this was not 
the only nest found in the area, and it states "Nesting season during 
August and September". There have been no other breeding records. 
First date: 16 July; last date: 9 May. Refs: van Someren & van Someren 
(1911); van Someren (1916, 1932, 1936). 

253. Numenius arquata arquata and orientalis Curlew 321a, b 
Sc, P.mig. Three records of birds trapped at Entebbe in 1950 : two 

of the race orientalis (August) , and a single nominate bird in July 
and August. There is a recent sight record of a single bird on 7 March 
1970. In addition there is a record of a bird heard calling at night 
in Kampala on 7 March 1968. Refs: Anon (1950); Eggling (1951a); BNL 7; 
Frankum . 

254. Numenius phaeopus phaeopus Whimbrel 322 
Sc, P.WV., REM. Recorded in small numbers on rocky shores at Entebbe; 
most records are from September to April. Was perhaps commoner in the 
past. Refs: Jackson (1913); Anon (1950); Eggling (1951a); Ash; Pearson. 

255. Tringa erythropus Spotted Redshank 316 
Uncom., few, P.WV. Seen singly in swamps and bays round the Lake shore, 
and in quiet inland pools including Kajansi, Mabamba, Nakawa and Port Bell. 
All records are for January to March. First date: 16 January; last 
date: 12 March. Refs: Mann (1971 & 1976); BNL 17,18,30; Frankum; 
Pearson; pers.obs. 

256. Tringa glareola Wood Sandpiper 314 
V.com., num. -f.num., P.WV & possible pass.mig., REM. Probably the most 
common and widespread Palaearctic wader recorded here. Occurs in most 
of the swamps, on mudbanks and in small inland pools, usually singly 

or in small numbers, but up to 12 together especially in September and 
March. Most records are during the Palaearctic winter, but a few 
individuals over-summer. 



23 



257. Tringa nebular ia Greenshank 318 
Com./ few, P.WV & pass.mig., REM. Widespread and usually seen singly 

on muddy or sandy beaches round the Lake. Also in muddy swamps and 
inland pools. There is evidence of an autumn passage in October, and 
up to 6 birds have been seen together. Most records are between August 
and May, with a few individuals over-summering. 

258. Tringa ochropus Green Sandpiper 313 
Com., few, P.WV & pass.mig. Usually seen singly from August to May. 

Not usually seen on the open Lake shore, but prefers small inland pools, 
ditches and sewage works . There are no over-summering records . 
First date: 31 July; last date: 1 May. 

259. Tringa stagnatilis Marsh Sandpiper 317 
Com., f.num., P.WV. Seen singly on exposed mud in Lake-side swamps, 
beaches and in inland pools throughout, from August to April. There 

are no over-summering records. First date: 31 August; last date: 30 
April. 

261. Xenus cinereus Terek Sandpiper 311 
Sc. , P.WV. Several individuals recorded at Entebbe from August to 
December 1950 and Damba Island in January. Recent records at Entebbe 

on 30 September 1976 and 1 October 1967. Refs: Anon. (1937); Anon. 
(1950); Eggling (1951a); Pearson. 

Sub-family Scolopacinae 

262. Gallinago gallinago gallinago Common Snipe 298 
Com.-f.com., num.-f .num. , P.WV & pass.mig. Records from September to 
April, usually of single birds, but sometimes parties of 10 or 15 are 
present. Most records are for October and March/April. Found through- 
out in swamps and especially short swampy grass. First date: 25 Sept- 
ember; last date: 10 April. 

263. Gallinago media Great Snipe 299 
Sc. , P.mig. Recorded in the literature at Entebbe (November). There 
are recent sight records at Entebbe (December, April) and Lutembe 
(January) Refs: BNL 6; Pearson. 

264. 'Gallinago nigripennis aequatorialis African Snipe 300 

Recorded in the literature at Entebbe. There are recent probable sight 
records, and it may well be overlooked among the much more numerous 
G. gallinago. Its status is uncertain. Ref : Ogilvie-Grant (1910) . 

Sub-family Caliditrinae 

267. Calidris alba Sanderling 308 

Sc. , few, P. pass.mig. mainly in the autumn. Recorded singly, or in 
pairs round the Lake shore, on beaches and swampy mudbanks from Sept- 
ember to November and March at Entebbe, Kaazi and Mabamba. 
Refs: Anon. (1950); BNL 14; Frankum; Pearson; pers.obs. 

270. Calidris ferruginea Curlew Sandpiper 303 

Com., num. -f.num., P.WV., REM except July. Seen singly or in small 
parties in swamps and inland muddy pools as well as Lake shore beaches 
throughout. On 27 June 1982 at Kakindu 10 birds were present in non- 
breeding plumage, and on 9 June 1982 one bird in breeding plumage was 
present at Lutembe. First date: 30 August; last date: 27 June. 



24 



272. Calidris minuta Little Stint 305 

V.com., num. -f. num., P.WV. Widespread, singly or in parties up to 
30 birds, throughout on Lake shore beaches, swampy mudbanks and inland 
pools. Also recorded on the off-shore islands. Occurs from August to 
May; there is no evidence of passage, but one over-summering record of 
■a single bird at Kakindu on 27 June 1982. First date: 3 August; 
last date: 9 May. 

274. Calidris temminckii Temminck's Stint 306 

Com.-f.com., num. -f. num., P.WV. There is evidence that this has 
become much commoner in recent years. It is now recorded regularly 
from October to May, often in company with C. minuta, though usually, 
but not always in smaller numbers. Seen in similar habitat to 
C. minuta though perhaps more often in the inland pools than on the 
open mudbanks and beaches. Prefers slightly drier mud, and tends to 
keep to the edges of the deeper mud. There are no over-summering 
records. First date: 24 October; last date: 9 May. 

277. Limosa lapponica lapponica Bar- tailed Godwit 320 
Recorded in the literature at Entebbe on 29 October 1950. 

Ref : Anon. (1950) . 

278. Limosa limosa limosa Black-tailed Godwit* 319 
One record of this Palaearctic migrant, of a single bird at Mabamba 

on 27 November 1975. Ref: Carswell (1977) 

279. Philomachus pugnax Ruff 309 
F.com., num. -few, P.WV & pass.mig. Recorded mostly singly, or in small 
groups up to 8, but occasionally flocks of 50 - 100 burds are present. 
Inhabits swampy mudbanks and beaches along the Lake shore, less often 
inland pools. Occurs from August to April with a spring passage evident 
in March. There are no over- summering records. First date: 6 August; 
last date: 19 April. 

Sub-family Arenariinae 

281. Arenaria interpres interpres Turnstone 310 
Sc. , few, P. pass.mig. Records of single birds on Lake shore beaches 

and off-shore islands at Entebbe and Mayinja Island in September and 
October. Refs: Anon. (1950); Eggling (1951a); Ash; Pearson; Sheldon; 
pers . obs . 

Family RECURVIROSTRIDAE Stilts 

282. Himantopus himantopus himantopus Black-winged Stilt 296 
V.com., num., prob.P.WV. Widespread throughout, usually in quiet 
swampy pools, and less often on the Lake shore. Records are from 
October to May, and there is one record of two birds at Kakindu on 

27 June 1982. Usually single, or in small groups of up to 5 birds. 
A record of about 20 birds at Mayinja Island on 24 October 1982 is 
exceptional. First date: 1 October; last date: 8 May. 

Family BURHINIDAE Thicknees 

287. Burhinus capensis presumed maculosus Spotted Thicknee 262b 

One published sight record at Entebbe in October-November 1964 is 
unconfirmed. Normally frequents much drier areas. 
Ref: Britton (ed. ) (1980). 



25 



290. Burhinus vermiculatus vermiculatus Water Thicknee 263a 

V.com.- com., few, res., breeds, REM. Local, occurs mostly on the rocky 
islands, but also on rocky and sandy Lake shore beaches. Not found 
inland. 

Family GLAREOLIDAE Coursers, Pratincoles 
Sub-family Cursoriinae 

292. Cursorius teuuninckii Temminck's Courser 326 

Sc. , few, wan. , no breeding records. Few records in short grassland 
and playing fields in April, June, September and October at Entebbe, 
Kampala and Namulonge. Refs: Anon. (1950); Uganda Museum; BNL 17; 
Frankum. 

295. Rhinoptilus chalcopterus Violet-tipped Courser 329 

Sc. , status uncertain, no breeding records. Recorded in the literature 
at Entebbe, and one sight record at Kaazi in November. Known to be a 
partial migrant in some parts of East Africa. Ref: Pearson. 

Sub-family Glareolinae 

298. Glareola nuchalis nuchalis White-collared Pratincole 333 

F.com., few, res., breeds, REM. Probably more common on the rocky off- 
shore islands than on the mainland Lake shore, where it is local and 
seen in small numbers on rocky stretches. 

Family LARIDAE Gulls, Terns 

In recent years there has been a change in status of many members of this 
family throughout East Africa. Several species have recently extended their 
range. If this trend is continued it is likely that such species as Larus 
ridibundus will become regular winter visitors to this area, and other species , 
now making their appearance in Kenya, will be recorded here in the near future. 

Sub- family Larinae 

305. Larus argentatus heuglini or taimyrensis Herring Gull 339 
Sc. , P.pass.mig. Records for Entebbe when up to three birds (adult and 
immature) were seen together on 8 different occasions in August, Sept- 
ember, October and November 1950. One recent record of an adult bird 

at Kakindu on 5 March 1972. In recent years this gull has become a 
regular visitor to parts of East Africa, so it may be expected to occur 
again in this area. Refs: Anon. (1950); BNL 31; Frankum (1972a); Mann 
(1976) . 

306. Larus cirrocephalus Grey-headed Gull 342 
V.com. -com., num. -few, perhaps local migrant, no breeding records, REM. 
The common and widespread gull of the Lake shore, also sometimes in 
inland swamps and wetlands. Occasionally in large flocks of 100's or 
1000' s on off-shore rocks and islands, but sometimes completely absent. 
Most records, and all those of large flocks, are from August to March, 
and it may be a non-breeding visitor to this area. 

307. Larus fuscus fuscus Lesser Black-backed Gull 340 
V.com. -com., num. -f. num., P.WV., REM, but most records for September to 
May. Fairly widespread along the Lake shore, also occasionally recorded 
in inland swamps and dams. One of the few birds to be seen swimming in 
the open waters of the Lake. Has perhaps become commoner in recent 
decades, although it has been recorded here for many years. Mostly singly 
or in small numbers, but up to 70 recorded together, especially in late 
March and April. 

26 



310. Larus ichthyaetus Great Black-headed Gull 343 

One record of a first year bird at Entebbe from 16 April 1966 to 
25 September 1966. This was the first record in East Africa of this 
Palaearctic gull, and it is still the only one for Uganda, though it 
has been recorded subsequently elsewhere in East Africa. 
Refs: Pearson (1971 & 1972a); Mann (1971 & 1976). 

314. Larus ridibundus Black-headed Gull 345 

In East Africa as a whole this gull has only become established as a 
Palaearctic winter visitor in any numbers in recent years, the first 
substantial records being in 1971. The first definite Uganda record 
was of an adult in breeding plumage on 28 March 1971 at Kibanga Port. 
(A previous record is published, but with no details.) Though still 
scarce there are now records at Gaba on 17 March 1981, 17 January 1982, 

24 January 1982 and at Entebbe on 10 December 1983. 

Refs: Anon. (1971); Frankum (1972b); Mann (1976); BNL 19; Ash; Sheldon; 
pers . obs . 

Sub- family Sterninae 

318. Chlidonias leucopterus White-winged Black Tern 361 

V.com., ab.-f.num., P.WV & pass, mig., REM. The commonest and most wide- 
spread tern recorded in wetlands throughout the area. Most records are 
for November to June. From March to June huge flocks in full breeding 
dress are often seen either passing overhead in a northerly or westerly 
direction, or at such favoured sites as Entebbe Airport and the surround- 
ing swamps. After the departure of these flocks the remaining birds 
over-summer in small numbers round the Lake shore and in swamps. 

320. Gelochelidon nilotica nilotica Gull-billed Tern 349 

Com., num. -f. num., P.WV., REM. Usually singly or in small numbers, but 
flocks of up to 100 recorded. Most records are for September to March; 
sometimes seen in breeding dress in April and May. Fairly widespread 
in swamps and round the Lake shore. Appears to have become commoner in 
the last decade. 

323. Sterna bengalensis par Lesser Crested Tern 355 

There is a single sight record at Entebbe on 6 August 1950. Ref : Anon 
(1950). 

325. Sterna caspia Caspian Tern 350 

There is an unconfirmed published record at Entebbe, and a sight record 
of a single bird at Kakindu on 12 March 1983. Refs: Britton (ed.) 
(1980) ; Ash; Sheldon; pers. obs. 

328. Sterna hirundo or tiibetana Common Tern 351 

There are two sight records of this Palaearctic migrant at Lutembe on 

25 April 1983 and at Entebbe on 2 June 1983. These constitute the first 
records for Uganda. Ref: Ash (in prep.). 

Family RYNCHOPIDAE Skimmers 

331. Rynchops flavirostris African Skimmer 364 

Recorded in the literature at Entebbe in October. Ref: Anon. (1950) . 



27 



Family COLUMBIDAE Pigeons, Doves 
Sub-family Columbinae 

337. Aplopelia larvata jacksoni Lemon Dove 399 

Recorded in the literature at Mabira; also more recently at Kifu. 
No breeding records. Possibly overlooked as it is a ground feeding 
dove confined to dense forest undergrowth. Ref : Hamel (1980) . 

342. Columba livia Feral Pigeon 376 

V.com., ab., res., breeds, REM. Widespread in urban areas and the 
larger villages. Almost certainly introduced as the wild form does 
not occur near here. Barely mentioned in the literature, and omitted 
from Jackson (1938) and Mackworth-Praed & Grant (1957) . Possibly has 
existed in Kampala for many years, but has been ignored. 
Refs: Frankum (1972c); Mann (1976). 

344. Columba unicincta Afep Pigeon 382 
F.com., few., prob.res., no breeding records, dated records for January 
to April and July /August. Seen or heard in most of the forests here, 
but keeps well hidden in the tree tops. Sometimes leaves the forest to 
feed. 

345. Oena capensis capensis Namaqua Dove 393 
Sc. Recorded in the literature at Entebbe and Kyetema, with recent 
records at Entebbe in May and July. Refs: van Someren (1916); Ash. 

346. Streptopelia capicola tropica Ring-necked Dove 388 
F.com., few, wan. Typically occurs in drier acacia country away from 
the Lake, and has been recorded most frequently here at Namulonge with 
scattered records throughout the year. Nearer the Lake it is scarce, 
but occasional wanderers recorded on the Entebbe peninsula. Feeds on 
the ground and usually seen on roads. 

350. Streptopelia semitorquata Red-eyed Dove 386 
V.com., num., res., breeds, REM. Apart from Columba livia this is the 
commonest and most widepread dove. Plentiful in open woodland and 
forest edge, usually in ones and twos. Also common in central Kampala 
parks and gardens, and feeds both on the ground and in trees. 

351. Streptopelia senegalensis senegalensis Laughing Dove 392 
V.com., num., res., breeds, REM. Even more urban than the previous 
species, and has adapted to central Kampala where it frequents car 
parks and markets . Also common and widespread in rural areas , round 
villages and cultivation. A tame species, usually seen feeding on 

the ground singly, or in pairs, and does not form the large flocks 
described elsewhere. 

352. Streptopelia turtur possibly turtur and arenicola Turtle Dove 384 
At least seven individuals were present at Entebbe between 9 October 

and 8 November 1983. This constitutes the first Uganda record. 
Refs: Ash (in prep.); Sheldon; pers.obs. 

355. Turtur afer Blue-spotted Wood Dove 395 

V.com., num., res., breeds, REM. Widespread in wooded gardens in 
Kampala, in bushed and wooded grassland, cultivation, forest patches 
and forest edge. Usually seen feeding in the open in pairs, and is 
shy and wary. 



28 



357. Turtur tympanistria Tambourine Dove 394 
Com., f.num., res., breeds, REM. Appears to need trees and forest 
patches, and therefore not found in central Kampala, but reaches the 
well-wooded suburbs. Usually found singly, or in pairs feeding on 

the ground, but does not come out so readily into the open as does 
the last species. 

Sub-family Treroninae 

358. Treron australis gibber if rons Green Pigeon 401b 
Com., f.num., res., breeds, REM. Usually seen in small flocks feeding 

in fruiting trees, and is not seen on the ground. Widespread and 
apparent movements probably associated with food supply. Occurs from 
Kampala suburbs to the Lake shore. 

Family PSITTACIDAE Parrots, Lovebirds 

363. Agapornis pullaria ugandae Red-headed Lovebird 452 

V. com. -com., f.num., res., breeds, REM. Most records are from December 
to March, with a peak in January, and also for July. These movements 
may be associated with food supply. Widespread in bush and cultivation, 
often by the Lake shore, in pairs or small flocks. 

367. Poicephalus meyeri saturatus Brown Parrot 449c 

F.com., few, perhaps loc.mig., no breeding records. Records are from 
September to May. Perhaps subject to local movements in response to 
food supply. Usually seen in pairs or small flocks in bush and cultiv- 
ation, widespread from Kampala to the Lake shore. 

370. Psittacula krameri krameri or borealis Rose-ringed Parakeet 450a 
The only record refers to escapees which were observed in Kampala or c 
for a number of years. Ref : Allen & Fripp (1964) . 

371. Psittacus erithacus erithacus Grey Parrot 442 
Cora., f.num., res., breeds, REM. Occurs in small flocks or pairs and 

is widespread usually near the Lake shore, or on the islands. Needs 
forest or forest patches, and tall trees. 

Family MUSOPHAGIDAE Turacos 

372. Corythaeola cristata Great Blue Turaco 437 
Com., few, res., breeds, REM. Widespread in suitable habitat with 
forest, woodland and tall trees. Seen in pairs and less commonly in 
small groups. Ranges from the Lake shore to the outer Kampala suburbs. 

376. Crinifer zonurus Eastern Grey Plantain Eater 438 
V.com. , num., res., breeds, REM. Widespread in pairs or small groups 
from woodland and cultivation to central Kampala parks and gardens . 
Usually keeps to tree tops, but occasionally descends to feed in fruit- 
ing bushes. 

377. Musophaga rossae Ross's Turaco 436 
Com., f.num., res., breeds, REM. Widespread, usually in pairs where- 
ever there are tall trees, keeps to the tree tops. Occurs from rural 
areas to central Kampala. 

384. Tauraco schuetti emini Black-billed Turaco 430a 

Uncom.-sc, few, status unclear, no breeding records. Has been recorded 
occasionally in Kifu, Kituza, Mabira, Namanve and Mpumu, and may be 
resident in most of the forests here. Dated records are for January, 



29 



March, October and November. Refs: Seth-Smith (1913); van Someren 
(1916 & 1922) ; BNL 26; Hamel (1980); Pearson. 

Family CUCULIDAE Cuckoos, Coucals 
Sub- family Cuculinae 

385. Cercococcyx mechowi Dusky Long- tailed Cuckoo 409 

Uncom., few, no breeding records. A little recorded and local species 
of dense forest, recorded here at Busi, Entebbe, Kasaala, Kifu, Kisubi, 
Kyetema, Mabira, Mpumu, Sezibwa and Zika. Nothing is known of its 
movements locally; dated records are for April, May, June, July and 
September. Refs: Seth-Smith (1913); van Someren (1916 & 1922); 
Friedmann (1966); Okia (1976); BNL 23,25; Hamel (1980); Pearson. 

388. Chrysococcyx caprius Didric Cuckoo 417 
V.com.-f .com. , f. num. -few, prob.res. & loc.mig., breeds, REM. There are 
more records of calling birds in October and November, and from January 
to April. Widespread in open bush, garden, cultivation and Lake-side 
habitat as well as Kampala suburbs, but not central Kampala. 

389. Chrysococcyx cupreus cupreus Emerald Cuckoo 416a 
Com., few, prob. loc.mig. , breeds. Records of calling birds in this area 
are from February to October, with a peak from March to June. Is possibly 
present, but silent in other months. Widespread in open forest patches 
and gardens, and ranges from Kampala suburbs to the Lake shore. 
Frequents tall trees, just below the top-most branches. 

391. Chrysococcyx klaas Klaas ' Cuckoo 418 
V.com.-f .com. , f .num. , perhaps res. & loc.mig., breeds, REM, with more 
records of calling birds from January to March. Widespread from central 
Kampala to the Lake shore in woodland, gardens and cultivation with tall 
trees. 

392. Clamator glandarius Great Spotted Cuckoo 413 
Sc. , few, no breeding records. A little known species of uncertain 
status. There are sight records for November, December, January, March 
and June mostly in Lake-side bush at Entebbe, Kaazi , Kibanga Port and 
Kisubi, but also in cultivation inland at Namulonge. These birds may 

be Uganda or Sudan breeders which move south in May or June after breed- 
ing, and north again in February and March. Refs: BNL 9,10,19,28,29; 
Sheldon; pers.obs. 

393. Clamator jacobinus pica or serratus Black and White Cuckoo 415 
Sc. Sight records for Kikaya (May) , Entebbe (March, August) , Gaba 
(November) and Mabamba (January) . Whether these are the East African 

breeding race pica, or the non-breeding visitor serratus is not known. 
Refs: BNL 9,10; Ash; pers. obs. 

394. Clamator levaillantii Levaillant's Cuckoo 414 
F.com. , few, intra-Afr .mig. , no breeding records, REM, but most records 
are for April, and to a lesser extent for August. Fairly widespread and 
occurs in gardens, cultivation, open bush and woodland both inland and by 
the Lake shore. 

395. Cuculus canorus Eurasian Cuckoo 404a 
Sc. , few, P. pass. mig. & possible occasional WV. Most records are from 
late March to mid-April, with a few in October, December and May. 
Recorded from Entebbe, Gaba, Kaazi, Kampala, Kyetema, Mabira and Namulonge 
in bush, open woodland and well wooded gardens. First date: 24 October; 
last date: 10 May. Refs: van Someren (1916); BNL 14,19,33; Ash; Frankum; 
Pearson. 

30 



396. Cuculus clamosus clamosus and gabonensis Black Cuckoo 407, 408 

F.com., few, status unclear, prob.res. & intra-Afr .mig. No breeding 
records. Records of calling outside forests are probably of the nominate 
race, which is an intra-African migrant, fairly widespread, and recorded 
here from January to May especially in March in thick bush, gardens and 
woodland. The western race gabonensis occurs in the forests of western 
Uganda and records of calling birds in local forests probably belong here. 
These records are scattered throughout the year, but mostly in February 
and March. 

398. Cuculus poliocephalus rochii Lesser Cuckoo 405b 
Recorded in the literature at Entebbe (July) and Mabira (February) . 

Ref: Hamel (1980). 

399. Cuculus solitarius solitarius Red-chested Cuckoo 406 
V. com. -com., f.num., perhaps res. & loc.mig., breeds, REM. There is an 
increase in vocal activity from November to June, and numbers appear to 
increase suddenly in November. Widespread and occurring in open country- 
side, gardens including Kampala, bush and cultivation, particularly in 
tall trees. It is sometimes heard calling at night, and these might be 
migrating birds. 

Sub-family Phoenicophaeinae 

401. Ceuthmochares aereus aereus Yellowbill 424a 

F.com., few, breeds, REM. Local, and its presence is unpredictable. 
It is sometimes absent from its usual haunts. Elsewhere in East Africa 
it is known to be a migrant. Occurs in thick bush, secondary forest and 
forest patches. 

Sub-family Centropinae 

403. Centropus grillii Black Coucal 420a 
One sight record in a papyrus swamp at Lutembe on 6 June 1982. It is 
confined to dense papyrus. Refs: Sheldon; pers.obs. 

404. Centropus monachus fischeri Blue-headed Coucal 421b 
F.com., few, prob.res., no breeding records. Dated records for June, 
August and October, November and December. Local and confined to 
papyrus and reed swamps both around the Lake shore and inland. Not often 
seen as it keeps well hidden, but occasionally single birds are seen 
perched on the papyrus. 

406. Centropus superciliosus loandae White-browed Coucal 423c 
V.com., f.num., res., breeds, REM. Widespread in thick cover, gardens 
including central Kampala, bush, cultivation, forest patches and 
elephant grass. 

Family TYTONIDAE Barn Owls 

407. Tyto alba af finis Barn Owl 528 
Recorded in the literature for Entebbe and Kampala. There are no known 
resident populations in Kampala today, but a bird was caught and killed 

in Kampala in January 1984. Ref: Britton (ed.) (1980); Pomeroy. 

Family STRIGIDAE Owls 

409. Asio capensis capensis African Marsh Owl 532 

Recorded as breeding in Kyetume in February. A live, captive bird was 
seen in Kampala in November 1969, but its origin was not established. 
Refs: BNL 3; Nest Record. 

31 



412. Bubo africanus probably cinerascens Spotted Eagle Owl* 543a or b 

F.com., few, res., breeds, REM. The most frequently seen owl, and 
although local, has been regular for many years in certain Kampala 
suburbs. Fairly widespread, sometimes, but by no means always in the 
vicinity of stone quarries. The birds here all appear .to have dark 
brown irises, and are therefore probably cinerascens . 
Ref: Jackson (1938). 

414. Bubo lacteus Verreaux's Eagle Owl 544 

Uncom., few, breeds. Dated records are for March, June, July and 
September to December. More common in acacia woodland away from the 
Lake, and recorded occasionally at Entebbe, Kisubi and Namulonge, and in 
the past in Kampala, Mpumu and Kyetema. Ref s : Sharpe (1902); Seth-Smith 
(1913); van Someren (1916); Allen & Fripp (1964); BNL 11,29; Ash; 
Frankum; Pitman. 

416. Ciccaba woodfordii nuchalis African Wood Owl 533b 

F.com., few, prob.res., no breeding records, REM except June to August. 
Its presence is unpredictable, and it is apparently absent, or silent 
for months at a time. Occurs in woodland, open forest and well wooded 
gardens in the outer Kampala suburbs. 

422. Otus leucotis leucotis or granti White-faced Scops Owl 536a or 

Two recently fledged young birds were found in Kampala in February 1984. b 

Ref: Goodman & Pomeroy (1984) . 

424. Otus scops scops and perhaps senegalensis Scops Owl 534a, b 

F.com., few, prob.res. & P.mig., no breeding records. The nominate 
Palaearctic race has been recorded in the literature in January, February 
and March. Other records for May to July probably refer to the race 
senegalensis . Recorded from quite urban areas as long as there are 
trees, also ranges to woodland and open forest. 

Family CAPRIMULGIDAE Nightjars 

Records of nightjars in the literature usually refer to specimens, whereas 
recent records, being sight records, pose considerable problems of identi- 
fication. Records in this paper tend to err on the side of caution, so 
some species may in fact be commoner than indicated. 

427. Caprimulgus clarus clarus slender-tailed Nightjar* 565b 
Sc, few, breeds. Recorded in the past in bush and woodland at Entebbe, 
Kampala and Kyetema in March, April, July and September. 

Refs: van Someren (1922); Nest Record. 

428. Caprimulgus climacurus sclateri Long-tailed Nightjar 565e 
Sc, few, loc.mig., no breeding records. A little recorded species 
occurring in trees and open bush. Dated records are for October to 

March on the Lake shore at Entebbe and Kaazi. Refs: Pearson; pers.obs. 

430. Caprimulgus europaeus europaeus Eurasian Nightjar 547a 
Recorded in the literature at Entebbe in October and November. 

Refs: Jackson (1914); Anon. (1950). 

431. Caprimulgus fossii welwitschii Gabon Nightjar 560 
Sc. , few, status uncertain. Recent records are from April to June. Old 
records state that it was present from August to April and bred in the 
area, but there is the possibility of confusion with clarus. Found in 
open short grasslands at Kaazi, Kampala, Kyetema, Mukono and Namulonge. 
Refs: van Someren (1916 & 1922); BNL 5,9,10,20,22,34. 



32 



433. Caprimulgus inornatus Plain Nightjar 556 
Recorded in the literature at Mpumu. It is known to be an intra- African 
migrant elsewhere. There is one recent sight record at Lutembe in July 
1983. Ref: Ash. 

434. Caprimulgus natalensis natalensis White- tailed Nightjar 557 
Uncom., few, prob.res., breeds. Few dated records at Entebbe, Kyetema, 
Kyetume, Mpumu and Namulonge in February, March, May to August and 
October, but it is probably under recorded. Frequents damp grassy areas 
and swamp edges. Ref s : Ogilvie-Grant (1910); Seth-Smith (1913); 

van Someren (1916); BNL 30, 31; Zoology Museum; Nest Record; Pearson. 

436. Caprimulgus pectoralis nigriscapularis Fiery-necked Nightjar 551b 

Com.-f.com., few, prob.res., breeds, REM except July and August. Nearly 
all records are for birds calling on moonlit nights and such records are 
from October to March. Probably present but silent in other months. 
Occurs in woodland and forest patches . 

440. Macrodipteryx longipennis Standard-winged Nightjar 563 
One record of a bird found dead in Kampala which presumably refers to a 
straggler from the north. Ref: Allen & Fripp (1964) . 

441. Macrodipteryx vexillarius Pennant-winged Nightjar 564 
Com.-f.com., f.num., intra- Afr. non-breeding. mig. Nearly all records 

are for males in breeding plumage during August, with a few in July 
and September. These refer to birds on passage south to their breeding 
grounds. The northward passage is less well documented, but there is 
a specimen (with plumes) from Kampala dated February 1970. Ref: Zoo- 
ology Museum. 

Family APODIDAE Swifts, Spinetails 
Sub- family Apodinae 

443. Apus af finis aerobates Little Swift 643 
V.com., ab. , res., breeds, REM. The commonest and most widespread swift 
in the area. Occurs in a variety of habitats from open grassland and 
cultivation to central Kampala. This is one of the species that has 
become more common in recent years, and has taken advantage of man-made 
nesting sites. Jackson (1938) does not record it for Uganda. 

444. Apus apus apus or pekinensis Eurasian Swift 636a or c 
F.com., f.num., P.WV & pass. mig. Occurs from August to March, but 

mainly on passage in September and October. Can turn up anywhere, and 
is often seen in fairly large flocks, but also singly, or in small 
numbers in association with other swifts. First date: 22 August; 
last date: 13 March. 

447. Apus caffer White-rumped Swift 644 

V.com. -com., num., res., breeds, REM. Widespread from the outskirts of 
Kampala to the villages, but rarely seen in central urban areas. 

449. Apus melba possibly melba Alpine Swift 640a 

Sc. , few, wan., possible P. mig. Few records from January to March and 
in September, at Kampala, Kikaya and Namulonge. Usually in small 
numbers, but more than 30 birds recorded together in January 1984 at 
Kampala. May be of the nominate Palaearctic race. Refs: BNL 17,19,41; 
Pearson; pers.obs. 

452. Cypsiurus parvus myochrous Palm Swift 646b 

V.com., num., res., breeds, REM. Widespread in small numbers where there 
are palm trees, from the centre of Kampala to rural areas. 



33 



Sub-family Chaeturinae 

456. Rhaphidura sabini Sabine's Spinetail 649 
One sight record of eight birds over Mabira in April 1972. 

Refs: BNL 32; Hamel (1980). 

457. Telacanthura ussheri sharpei Mottle-throated Spinetail 647c 
Sight records of two birds over Mabira in February 1971, and at least 

one bird at Kajansi in October 1983. Refs: Mann (1971); Ash. 

Family COLIIDAE Mousebirds 

459. Colius striatus kiwuensis Speckled Mousebird 566i 

V.com., num., res., breeds, REM. Widespread in small numbers in 
gardens , bush and cultivation , from central Kampala to the Lake shore . 

Family TROGONIDAE Trogons 

462. Apaloderma narina narina Narina's Trogon 570a 

Uncom., few, prob.res. , no breeding records. Few records in thick forest 
at Kampala, Kifu, Mabira, Mpanga, Mpumu and Namanve from January to 
April and July to September. Refs: Seth-Smith (1913) ; van Someren 
(1916); BNL 5,23,36; Hamel (1980); Pearson. 

Family ALCEDINIDAE Kingfishers 
Sub-family Cerylinae 

464. Ceryle maxima Giant Kingfisher 466 
F.com., few, res., breeds, REM. Sparsely distributed and local. Favours 
open grassy Lake-side areas on rocky promontories and beaches, rather 
than the papyrus-choked bays. Also occasionally at inland pools. 

465. Ceryle rudis Pied Kingfisher 465 
V.com., ab., res., breeds, REM & wan. with some seasonal variation in 
numbers. Widespread round the Lake shore, particularly in the vicinity 

of sandy cliffs. Also wanders to inland pools and dams. 

Sub-family Alcedininae 

466. Alcedo cristata Malachite Kingfisher 470 
Com., f.num., res., & perhaps wan., breeds, REM. Fairly widespread 
usually near water, mostly round the Lake shore, but also at inland pools. 
Usually seen singly, or in pairs perched on the water side vegetation. 
Occasionally individuals are seen far from water, and these are probably 
wanderers. 

467. Alcedo leucogaster leopoldi White-bellied Kingfisher 

There is one record of a bird caught in a mist net at Kifu in July 1972. 
Also an unconfirmed published report from Mabira. Refs: BNL 34; 
Britton (ed.) (1980); Hamel (1980). 

468. Alcedo quadribrachys guentheri Shining-blue Kingfisher 469 
Sc. , few, prob.res., breeds. Another forest species recorded from the 
swamps and streams in Entebbe (June, August, October), Kifu (May), Mabira, 
Mpanga and Zika. Refs: van Someren (1922); Okia (1976); BNL 33; Hamel 

(1980) ; Nest Record; Ash; Pearson. 

472. Halcyon chelicuti chelicuti Striped Kingfisher 479 

V.com. -com., num., res., breeds, REM. Widespread from outer Kampala 
suburbs to the Lake shore. Occurs singly, or in pairs in open bush, 
gardens and cultivation. Frequently perches on telegraph wires. 



34 



473. Halcyon leucocephal a probably leucocephala Chestnut-bellied Kingfisher 477a 
Uncom. , few, intra-Afr.mig. , no breeding records. Nearly all records 

are for December and January, with a few in November and March. The 
nominate race is known to migrate south from Ethiopia, and has been 
recorded in East Africa from November to March. Birds seen here probably 
belong to this race. Occurs singly in open bush, woodland and gardens, 
not necessarily by water. Recorded from Entebbe, Kikaya, Mabira, Namulonge 
and several of the outer Kampala suburbs. Refs : van Someren (1916 & 1922); 
Allen & Fripp (1964); BNL 3,5,28,29,45,58; Pearson; pers.obs. 

474. Halcyon malimbica malimbica Blue-breasted Kingfisher 475 
Uncom., prob.f.num., breeds. Forest species with records from Kifu, 
Mabira, Mpanga, Mpumu, Sezibwa and Zika. Records from Zika indicate 

that it may be quite common there. Refs: Seth-Smith (1913); van Someren 
(1916); Okia (1976); BNL 30,35,36; Hamel (1980); Nest Record; Pearson. 

475. Halcyon senegalensis senegalensis Woodland Kingfisher 473a 
V. com. -com., num., res., breeds, REM but with an increase in 

numbers in October /November and May/ June. Widespread and 
conspicuous; perches on telegraph wires, trees and tall bushes. 
Found from central Kampala parks and gardens to the Lake-side. 

477. Ispidina lecontei Dwarf Kingfisher 472 
Sc. , few. Records from Kyagwe (February) and Mabira (April) where it 
frequents forest streams. One record from forest edge at Lutembe in 
March. Refs: van Someren (1916, 1921 & 1922); BNL 32; Hamel (1980); 
Sheldon; pers.obs. 

478. Ispidina picta picta and natalensis Pygmy Kingfisher 471a, b 
Com., f.num., res. & prob . intra-Af r .mig. , breeds, REM. The resident 
nominate race is widespread in forest edge, bushed and wooded grassland 
and gardens. It occurs alongside Alcedo cristata at many Lake-side 
localities. From March to June individuals are sometimes seen in 
unusual localities where they remain for a few days only. It is possible 
that these belong to the south breeding race natalensis of which there 
are 3 specimens from Kampala dated 20 May 1972 and 1 July 1972 (one 
undated) . Ref : Zoology Museum. 

Family MEROPIDAE Bee-eaters 

479. Merops albicollis White-throated Bee-eater 486 
V.com.-f .com. , ab.-few, intra-Afr.mig., REM. The commonest and most 
widespread bee-eater; occurs throughout in open areas from central 
Kampala to the Lake shore. A non-breeding visitor which arrives in 
August, having bred north of here. Particularly numerous on passage 
during September and October, but present in fairly large numbers up 
to May. From June to August occasional small flocks or single birds 
are seen. 

). Merops apiaster Eurasian Bee-eater 481 

F.com., few, P.WV & pass. mig. Recorded mainly from September to 
November, and again in March and April, with a few records for December. 
Its occurrence is irregular, and some years it is apparently absent. 
Sometimes associates with M.. albicollis , and is found in similar 
habitat. First date: 13 September; last date: 29 April. 



35 



490. Merops persicus persicus Blue-cheeked Bee-eater 482b 
V. com. -com. , ab. -num., P.WV & pass.mig. Occurs from late October to 
April, but most records are for February and March Widespread in swamps 
and wetlands, and grassy areas by the Lake shore. Large flocks are some- 
times seen, especially in February. Old records for July and September 
probably refer to M. superciliosus . First date: 28 October; last date: 

18 April. 

491. Merops pusillus meridionalis Little Bee-eater 488c 
F.com., f.num., prob.res. & loc.mig., breeds, REM except November and 
December. Its presemce is unpredictable, and it appears to be subject 

to irregular local movements. Usually in pairs, but up to 6 together 
in areas of bush and long grass, both inland and on Lake-shore promontories. 
Usually in rather drier areas than M. variegatus , but both species occur 
at Entebbe , Gaba , Lutembe and Namulonge . 

493. Merops superciliosus superciliosus Madagascar Bee-eater 482a 
Com., ab.-num., intra- Afr.mig. A non-breeding visitor from south-east 
Africa, recorded from May to September mostly by the Lake shore. Some- 
times in large flocks, but also singly and in small numbers. 

First date: 8 May; last date: 25 September. 

494. Merops variegatus loringi Blue-breasted Bee-eater 490a 
Com.-f.com., f.num., res., breeds, REM, but more records in February. 
Usually seen in small numbers up to 10 in bushed grassland with tall 
grass. Occurs alongside M. pusillus in some areas, but generally 
prefers damper areas, and is often seen in swamps and Lake-edge veg- 
etation. 

Family C0RACIIDAE Rollers 

495. Coracias abyssinica Abyssinian Roller 458 
A non-breeding migrant from the north, it is a straggler to Namulonge 
where there are sight records for January and December. Usually occurs 

in open bushed grassland. Ref : BNL 6. 

496. Coracias caudata caudata Lilac-breasted Roller 460a 
Sc. There is a specimen from Kampala (31 August 1940). That, and 

sight records from Kabanyolo in September, December and January const- 
itute the only records. Refs: BNL 14; Zoology Museum. 

497. Coracias garrulus garrulus Eurasian Roller 457 
Uncom. , few, P. pass.mig. and occasional WV. Most records are for October 
to December with a peak in November. Few records for other months from 
October to May. Usually occurs singly, but some small flocks have also 
been observed. Recorded at Entebbe, Gaba, Kampala, Mabira, Mpumu and 
Namulonge. First date: 24 October; last date: 9 May. , 

Refs: Jackson (1914); BNL 5,6,7,8,14,15,21; Ash; Pearson; pers.obs. 

498. Coracias naevia naevia Rufous-crowned Roller 461 
Sc. , few, wan. Records mainly for October and November, with one in 
July in surprisingly urban areas in the outer Kampala suburbs , and 
school playing fields. Refs: BNL 3; Frankum; pers.obs. 

500. Eurystomus glaucurus afer and perhaps glaucurus 463a ,b 

Broad-billed Roller 
Com., f.num., res. & perhaps pass.mig., breeds, REM. The only common 
roller, usually seen in pairs in open country with tall trees, in bushed 
and wooded grassland and cultivation. Records of flocks mostly from June 
to September and in February and March may be migrating birds of the 



36 






nominate Malagasy race, which is known to migrate to Zaire in February - 
November. 

501. Eurystomus gularis neglectus Blue-throated Roller 464 
Sc. , few, prob.res. , no breeding records. Few records from forest at 
Kifu (March, May, August) and Mabira. Refs: van Someren (1916); Mann 

(1976); BNL 26,31,33,36; Hamel (1980). 

Family UPUPIDAE Hoopoe 

502. Upupa epops africana and waibeli Hoopoe 517b, 518 
Sc. , few, breeds. Recent records are for November, December and 
January only in areas of short grass, and lawns. Apparently was 
commoner in the past when the race africana was a regular non-breeding 
visitor to Entebbe during November, and was subject to local movements, 
often on a large scale. The race waibeli was recorded at Entebbe and 
Kampala from January to March. Refs: Seth-Smith (1913); van Someren 

(1916); Allen & Fripp (1964); BNL 5,6,17; Nest Record; Ash; Pearson. 

Family PHOENICULIDAE Wood Hoopoes 

503. Phoeniculus bollei jacksoni White-headed Wood Hoopoe 522 
Recorded in the literature for Mabira (November) and the Kampala area. 
Refs: van Someren (1916,1918 & 1922); Hamel (1980). 

504. Phoeniculus castaneiceps brunneiceps Forest Wood Hoopoe 524 
Sc, few, prob.res., no breeding records. Records for Kifu (March) and 
undated records for Kasaala and Mabira. Refs: van Someren (1916); BNL 
31; Hamel (1980) . 

508. Phoeniculus purpureus marwitzi Green Wood Hoopoe 519a 

Common in the drier country to the north of here, but only a straggler 
to this area with records from Lutembe (September) and Namulonge (Feb- 
ruary) . Refs: BNL 18; pers.obs. 

Family BUCEROTIDAE Hornbills 
Sub- family Bucerotinae 

. Bycanistes subcylindricus subquadratus Black and White Casqued 500 

Hornbill 
V.com., num., res., breeds, REM. Widespread throughout from central 
Kampala to the Lake shore. Usually in pairs, but occasionally in small 
flocks in fruiting trees. Found among tall trees, woodland and open 
forest. 

i, Tockus alboterminatus geloensis Crowned Hornbill 509b 

F.com., few, prob.res., breeds, REM except October. Occurs in tall bush, 
gardens, cultivation and open park-like country, usually in pairs or 
small groups. 

'. Tockus fasciatus fasciatus Pied Hornbill 510 

Com., f.num., res., breeds, REM. Subject to movements associated with 
food supply, with most records for February. Fairly widespread through- 
out in forest, woodland and where there are tall trees; usually in pairs 
or small parties. 

>. Tockus nasutus nasutus Grey Hornbill 504a 

Recorded in the literature at Kyetema. Ref : van Someren (1916) . 



37 



Sub-family Bucoracinae 

527. Bucorvus abyssinicus Abyssinian Ground Hornbill 516 
Wan. , few. Sight records only at Naraulonge where recorded three times 
between 1960 and 1970. Normally occurs in the semi-arid areas of 
northern Uganda. Ref: BNL 14. 

528. Bucorvus cafer Ground Hornbill 515 
One unconfirmed published report from near Entebbe. Ref: Britton (ed. ) 

(1980). 

Family CAPITONIDAE Barbets, Tinkerbirds 

529. Buccanodon duchaillui duchaillui Yellow- spotted Barbet 590 
F.com. , few, prob.res., breeds. Dated records are for January, February, 
July and September to November. Occurs in forests and in fruiting trees 
in non- forest areas. 

533. Gymnobucco bonapartei cinereiceps Grey- throated Barbet 586 
F.com., few, prob.res., breeds. Dated records are for February to May 
and September to December. Widespread in open forest, forest edge and ■ 
woodlands. Also in stands of tall trees, and wanders to fruiting trees 
away from forest areas, where up to 10 seen together; more commonly in 
pairs. Ref: Volrath. 

534. Lybius bidentatus aequator ial is Double-toothed Barbet* 573a 
V.com., num., res., breeds, REM. The commonest barbet, widespread 
throughout in gardens, woodland, forest edge and bushed and wooded 
grassland and cultivation. 

535. Lybius diadematus diadematus Red- fronted Barbet* 585 
Recorded in the literature at Kyetema. Ref: van Someren (1916) . 

538. Lybius hirsutus ansorgii Hairy-breasted Barbet 582, 
F.com., few, prob.res., breeds, REM except February, August and December. 
Fairly widespread in open forest, forest patches and well-wooded country j 
wanders to fruiting trees. 

539. Lybius lacrymosus radcliffei Spotted- flanked Barbet 58 
Recorded in the literature for Entebbe and Kampala, where at one time it 
was apparently common and bred. There are no recent records. It has 
either been overlooked, or has undergone a change in status. 
Ref: van Someren (1922). 

540. Lybius leucocephalus leucocephalus White-headed Barbet* 576a 
F.com., prob.res., no breeding records, REM except May and August. 
Widespread, usually singly or in pairs, in tall trees in wooded 
grassland, open woodland and cultivation. 

548. Pogoniulus bilineatus mfumbiri Yellow-rumped Tinkerbird 596 < 
V.com., f.num., res., breeds, REM. Widespread throughout in forest 
edge, woodland, tall trees and occasionally tall bush. 

549. Pogoniulus chrysoconus chrysoconus Yellow- fronted Tinkerbird 595 1 
V.com., f.num., res., breeds, REM. Widespread throughout from central 
Kampala gardens to the Lake shore. Less of a forest bird than the 
previous species , and is found in smaller trees and often in bushes . 

553. Pogoniulus scolopaceus aloysii Speckled Tinkerbird 59' 

F.com., few, prob.res., breeds, REM except February, June and August. 
Fairly widespread in forest, forest edge and woodland. 






38 



! 



555. Pogoniulus subsulphureus flavimentum Yellow-throated Tinkerbird 598 
Uncom., few, prob.res., breeds. Recorded from forest and open wood- 
land at Entebbe, Kaazi,Kifu, Kyetema, Mabira, Mpumu and Namanve in 
January, May to July, September, November and December. Ref s : Seth- 
Smith (1913); van Someren (1916 & 1922); BNL 3,25,27,35; Hamel (1980). 

556. Trachylaemus purpuratus elgonensis Yellow-billed Barbet 604 
Uncom., few, prob.res. & breeds. Recorded occasionally in forests 
including Busi, Entebbe, Kifu, Mabira, Mpanga and Mukono, in April 

and July to September. Refs: van Someren (1916, 1918 & 1922); BNL 
13,20,23,36; Hamel (1980) ; Pearson. 

Family INDICATORIDAE Honeyguides 

561. Indicator conirostris Thick-billed Honeyguide 609 
One sight record for Entebbe in September 1971, and four individuals 
netted in Zika between September 1970 and July 1972. Refs: Okia (1976); 
BNL 25. 

562. Indicator exilis pachyrhynchus Least Honeyguide 610a 
Recorded in the literature in Kifu and Mabira. Refs: van Someren 

(1916 & 1922) ; Hamel (1980) . 

563. Indicator indicator indicator Black- throated Honeyguide 605 
Sc. , few, no breeding records. Occasional records in wooded grassland 
and tall bush, but its presence is erratic. It was present in a 
Kampala suburb almost daily for twelve months from August 1971, and less 
often subsequently up until February 1974. Also recorded at Gaba, Kikaya, 
Kisubi and Namulonge. Most records are for September to February. 

Refs: BNL 16,25,29; pers.obs. 

566. Indicator minor minor Lesser Honeyguide* 608a 

Uncom., few, prob.res., no breeding records. The commonest honeyguide 
here with records for January, March, April and October to December. 
Occurs in bushed and wooded grassland, cultivation and gardens, and has 
been recorded at Gaba, Kampala and Namulonge. Refs: Hopkins (1946); 
BNL 31,46; Pearson; pers.obs. 

569. Indicator variegatus Scaly- throated Honeyguide 606 

Recorded in the literature at Entebbe and Mabira. 

572. Prodotiscus insignis insignis Cassin's Honeybird 613a 

One sight record for Kifu in July 1971. Its presence here requires 
confirmation. Ref: BNL 23. 

Family PICIDAE Woodpeckers, Wrynecks 
Sub- family Jynginae 

576. Jynx torquilla tschusii Eurasian Wryneck 634b 

P.mig. Recorded in the literature at Entebbe on 21 October 1915. 
Ref: Meinertzhagen (1939). 

Sub-family Picinae 

I. Campethera caroli Brown-eared Woodpecker 615 

Sc. , few, prob.res., no breeding records. Occurs in thick primary and 
secondary forest, or even thick bush, with records for Gaba, Kifu 
(January), Mabira, Mpanga (October) and Zika. Refs: van Someren (1921 
& 1922); Okia (1976); BNL 14,29; Hamel (1980); Pearson. 



39 



582. Campethera nivosa herberti Buff-spotted Woodpecker 616a 
Sc. , few, prob.res., no breeding records. Recorded occasionally in 
forest and thick bush at Gaba, Kifu (July) , Kyetema, Mabira and Zika^. 
Refs: van Someren (1916 & 1922); Okia (1976); BNL 35; Hamel (1980); 
Zoology Museum; Pearson. 

583. Campethera nubica nubica Nubian Woodpecker 619a 
Com., few, res., breeds, REM. Widespread throughout from central 
Kampala to the Lake shore. Usually in noisy pairs in gardens, bushed 

and wooded grassland and cultivation. 

585. Dendropicos fuscescens lepidus Cardinal Woodpecker 623b 

F.com. , few, prob.res. & breeds. Occurs in gardens, bush, cultivation 
and open woodland. Dated records for March, June and September to 
December. 

587. Dendropicos poecilolaemus Uganda Spotted Woodpecker 626 

F.com., few, prob.res., breeds. Dated records for January to March, 
May, August, September and November. Frequents similar habitat to the 
previous species. 

590. Mesopicos goertae centralis Grey Woodpecker 630d 

Com., few, res., breeds, REM. The commonest and most widespread 
woodpecker. An adaptable species found throughout from central 
Kampala parks and gardens to Lake shore woodland. 

592. Mesopicos xantholophus Yellow-crested Woodpecker 632 

F.com.-uncom. , few, prob.res., no breeding records. Found in both 
primary and secondary forest. Dated records for February, April, 
July and December. 

Family PITTIDAE Pittas 

598. Pitta angolensis longipennis African Pitta 652 
Intra-Afr.mig. Occurs in Uganda from June to September as a non-breeding 
visitor from the south. Recorded in the literature at Mabira. 

Refs: van Someren (1922 & 1932); Burke (1969); Hamel (1980). 

599. Pitta reichenowi Green-breasted Pitta 653 
Recorded in the literature at Kyagwe. Ref: van Someren (1932). 

Family ALAUDIDAE Larks 

601. Calandrella cinerea saturatior Red-capped Lark* 686a| 

Recorded in the literature at Entebbe. Ref: van Someren (1922). 

612. Mirafra africana tropical is Rufous-naped Lark 659b; 

V. com. -com., f.num., res., breeds, REM. The only common lark; widespread 
singly or in pairs, in open areas of grass, scattered bush and cultivation/ 
especially on the grassy Lake shore promontories. 

621. Mirafra rufocinnamomea kavirondensis Flappet Lark 660f| 

Uncom., no breeding records. Recorded in the literature at Entebbe and 
Mpumu, and recent sight records from open grassy areas with scattered 
bush near the Lake at Kisi (January) and Lutembe (March, May, July and 
September to November). Refs: Seth-Smith (1913); van Someren (1922); 
BNL 7,29; Ash. 



40 



Family HIRUNDINIDAE Swallows, Martins, Rough-wings 

623. Delichon urbica urbica House Martin* 1074 
Uncom., few, P.pass.mig. Most records are for September, with a few in 
October, January (3 times in 1978 only) , and March. Usually seen singly 
in the company of other hirundines, but up to three together. Recorded 
in open grassy areas at Kaazi, Kiteezi, Lutembe and Mabamba, with several 
records for the Kampala suburbs. Refs: Pearson (1972b); BNL 1,2,25; 
Frankum; Pearson; pers.obs. 

624. Hirundo aibyssinica unitatis Striped Swallow 1065b 
V.com., ab.-num., res., breeds, REM. Widespread from the outskirts of 
town to cultivation, open bush and grassy areas by the Lake shore. 

Seen with other hirundines, sometimes in flocks of a hundred or more, 
near the Lake, but more often in pairs, or small numbers. 

625. Hirundo aethiopica aethiopica Ethiopian Swallow 1057 
There are two sight records : one of nesting birds at Entebbe on 9 May 
1971; and of a single bird at Lutembe on 3 October 1982. Refs: Nest 
Record; Sheldon; pers.obs. 

627. Hirundo angolensis Angola Swallow 1055 
V.com., ab. , res., breeds, REM, but with an increase in numbers from 
February to April. Occurs all round the Lake shore and is widespread 

in cultivation, bush and towns. Often in flocks of several hundred 
with other hirundines. 

628. Hirundo atrocaerulea Blue Swallow 1060 
Uncom. , few, intra-Afr.mig. & non-breeding visitor from the south. 
Recorded from March to September, but with few precisely dated records. 
Usually in the immediate vicinity of the Lake , and has been recorded 

at Entebbe (March), Kibanga Port (12 June and 17 July 1971; 15 May 
1976), Kyagwe, Mabamba (19 April 1978), Mabira (September), Mpumu (April, 
June, September) and Port Bell (mid-July) . Occurs singly, or in small 
groups flying low over grassy areas, or swamp edge. First date: March; 
last date: September. Refs: Seth-Smith (1913); BNL 22,23; Pearson; pers. 
obs. 

633. Hirundo griseopyga griseopyga Grey-rumped Swallow 1066 
Com., few -num., loc.mig., breeds. Recorded from January to November, 
with a peak from March to May when as many as 150 seen together. Smaller 
flocks are commoner, but local, round the Lake shore in open grassy areas. 
First date: 23 January; last date: 6 November. 

634. Hirundo rustica rustica Eurasian Swallow* 1054a 
V.com., ab. , P.WV & pass.mig. , but REM. The main arrival starts in 
August, and it is common by the end of that month, and remains abundant 
and widespread until April when most birds depart. The numbers are 
augmented by a noticeable south passage in September, and especially in 
October. In May, June and July occasional stragglers are recorded. 
Frequents a wide variety of habitat including towns, and sometimes forms 
enormous flocks by the Lake shore. Associates freely with other hirundines. 

635. Hirundo semirufa gordoni Rufous-chested Swallow 1064 
F . com . -uncom . , few, prob.res., breeds, REM except September and December. 
Recorded in open grassy areas, and swamps both inland and on the Lake 
shore at Busi, Entebbe, Kibanga Port, Kikaya, Lutembe, Mabamba, Mabira 
and Namulonge. Refs: Ansorge (1899); Ogilvie-Grant (1910); van Someren 

(1922); BNL 18,20,23,24,27; Zoology Museum; pers.obs. 



41 



636. Hirundo senegalensis saturatior Mosque Swallow 1063c 
F.com., few, prob.res., breeds, REM except August. More common than 

the previous species which it resembles. Occurs in open bush, cultivation 
and grassy areas, often round habitation, including parts of Kampala. 
Frequently perches on buildings, or bare branches, singly or in pairs. 

637. Hirundo smithii smithii Wire-tailed Swallow 1061 
Sc. , status not clear., no breeding records. Few undated records by the 
Lake shore at Entebbe and Gaba. In other parts of Uganda it occurs round 
human habitation. Refs: van Someren (1922); Pearson. 

639. Psalidoprocne albiceps albiceps White-headed Rough-wing 1080 

V. com. -com., num. -f. num., res., breeds, REM, but with a possible increase 
in numbers from November to April when small flocks are occasionally 
present, particularly in April. Widespread, usually in pairs in open 
grassy areas, cultivation, gardens and by the Lake shore. 

641. Riparia cincta suahelica Banded Martin 1070b 
F.com., few, perhaps res. or wan., breeds, REM. Very local, and occurs 

in open grassy Lake-side areas, often on the promontories, but its 
presence is unpredictable. Usually several birds are present, but some- 
times seen singly. 

642. Riparia paludicola ducis African Sand Martin 1069c 
Sc. , few, status unclear, no breeding records. Few dated records for 
January to March, June, August, November and December. May be overlooked 
among the much more numerous R. riparia. Occurs in damp areas round the 
Lake shore at Entebbe and Gaba. Refs: Ash; Pearson; pers.obs. 

643. Riparia riparia riparia Sand Martin* 1068a 
V.com., ab. , P.WV & pass.mig. Virtually confined to the Lake shore, but 
occasionally small flocks are seen inland. Present from August to May 
sometimes in flocks of thousands, especially at lake-fly swarms, and on 
passage in September and October, and again in April and May. It is the 
last migrant to leave the area. First date: 27 August; last date: 30 May. ] 

Family DICRURIDAE Drongos 

644. Dicrurus adsimilis probably adsimilis Drongo 1088a 
F.com., few, uncertain status, perhaps res. or wan. or loc.mig., breeds. 
Records are from August to April, with most records for March and October. 
Found among tall trees in non- forest areas including gardens, and most 
records are from suburban Kampala. Conspicuous and usually in pairs, or 
small groups which perch on bare branches and telegraph wires. 

644. Dicrurus adsimilis coracinus Velvet-mantled Drongo 1087 

Uncom. , few, prob.res., no breeding records. This forest- loving race 
of D. adsimilis is recorded at Entebbe, Kifu, Mabira, Mpanga and Mukono, 
with dated records for March, April, June and December. It may be under- 
recorded, and has been observed hawking insects in forest glades. 
Refs: Stoneham (1928); BNL 17,20,22,32; Hamel (1980); Pearson. 

Family ORIOLIDAE Orioles 

646. Oriolus auratus auratus & perhaps notatus African Golden Oriole 1165a,b 
F. com. -uncom. , few, intra-Afr .mig. The nominate population is a non- 
breeding visitor from the north. Jackson (1938) records this race at 
Entebbe in July and August. The southern race notatus is a non-breeding 
visitor recorded elsewhere in Uganda. Recent sight records (race not 
specified) are for March to July, October and November. It has been seen 



42 



in open forest , woodland and tall trees in cultivation. Keeps well 
hidden in the higher branches. Here it is most often seen singly , but 
elsewhere it has been recorded in flocks . 

647. Oriolus brachyrhynchus laetior Western Black-headed Oriole 1168 

Uncom., few, prob.res., no breeding records, one dated record for March 
and several undated records. It is probably under-recorded. Found in 
the forests where it stays high in the canopy of forest trees, but 
occasionally emerges into clearings and forest edge. Records from 
Entebbe (unconfirmed) , Kifu, Mabira, Mpanga, Mpumu and Sezibwa. 
Refs: Seth-Smith (1913); van Someren (1916, 1922); Britton (ed.) (1980); 
Hamel (1980) ; pers.obs. 

649. Oriolus larvatus rolleti Black-headed Oriole 1167 

V. com. -com., f.num., perhaps res. & breeds, REM but most records are 
for January and February* Widespread in non- forest areas, cultivation, 
bush and gardens. Always in the tallest trees, therefore often in 
eucalyptus. Sometimes in forest edge. Difficult to see as it keeps 
well hidden in the topmost foliage. 

651. Oriolus oriolus oriolus Golden Oriole 1164 

Uncom. , few, P.pass.mig. Most records are in October and November, 
with one in December, one in March and two in April. Found in areas of 
tall trees , both near and away from the Lake such as Entebbe , Kaazi , 
Kikaya, Kiteezi, Mpumu, Mukono and Namulonge. As with other orioles, 
it keeps to the top of tall trees. First date: 13 October; last date: 
7 April Refs: BNL 2,3,4,15,19,26; Ash; pers.obs. 

Family CORVIDAE Crows 

653. Corvus albicollis White-necked Raven 1175 
Recorded in the literature at Entebbe, Kampala and Mpumu. Usually found 
among rocky hillsides, but it is apparently a wanderer. Refs: Jackson 

(1899); Seth-Smith (1913). 

654. Corvus albus Pied Crow 1172 
V.com., num., res., breeds, REM. Widespread in central urban areas at 
rubbish dumps and markets, and in the surrounding countryside. Pomeroy 
(1975) gives the total population of Kampala as varying between approx- 
imately 600 birds to over 800 birds. 

Family PARI DAE Tits 

664. Parus funereus Dusky Tit 1157 

Recorded in the literature in the tree tops at Mabira and Sezibwa. 
Refs: van Someren (1916, 1922); Hamel (1980). 

666. Parus leucomelas guineensis Black Tit 1154c 

Uncom., few, perhaps loc.mig., breeds. Most dated records are for 
January to March, with a few in April, May, July and November. Usually 
in pairs or small groups in the mid-stratum of trees, foraging on the 
bark of the trunks and larger branches. Recorded at Entebbe, Kaazi, 
Kampala, Kasanje, Katalemwa, Mabira, Mpumu, Mukono and Namulonge. 
Individuals here have a pale eye. Refs: Jackson (1899, 1906); Ogilvie- 
Grant (1910); Seth-Smith (1913); BNL 15,17,21,31,33; Nest Record; 
Pearson; pers.obs. 



43 



Family REMIZIDAE Penduline Tits 

668. Remiz caroli roccattii African Penduline Tit 1160c 

Sc, few, breeds. Recorded in the literature at Entebbe, Kyetema, 
Kyetume (April, May) and Sezibwa, and one recent sight record for 
Kibanga Port on 27 November 1971. Usually in small parties searching 
bushes and flowers. Refs: Ogilvie-Grant (1910); van Someren (1916 & 
1922); BNL 7; Nest Record. 

Family TIMALIIDAE Babblers 

674. Trichastoma albipectus Scaly-breasted Illadopsis 737 
Recorded in the literature at Mabira. Refs: van Someren (1916 & 1922). 

675. Trichastoma fulvescens ugandae Brown Illadopsis 735 
F.com., few, prob.res., no breeding records, dated records for January, 
May, June and July. Widespread in most of the forests here. Secretive 

in nature, and frequents dense undergrowth, therefore probably under- 
recorded. Often in small parties low down, and sometimes on the forest 
floor in the vicinity of ant trails. 

677. Trichastoma rufipennis rufipennis Pale-breasted Illadopsis 736a 

Uncom. , few, prob.res., no breeding records. Another very secretive, 
perhaps under-recorded forest species . Has been netted and seen 
occasionally in Kifu (February and May) , and there are old records for 
Mabira where it was described as plentiful. Appears to keep low down 
in the undergrowth and is sometimes seen in small parties . 
Refs: van Someren (1916 & 1922); BNL 30,33; Hamel (1980). 

681 . Turdoides jardineii eminii Arrow-marked Babbler 725b 

Sc, few, status unclear, no breeding records. Recorded occasionally in 
parties in thick bush and open woodland at Kaazi (October) and Kikaya 
(January). Refs: BNL 26,41; Pearson. 

683 . Turdoides melanops sharpei Black-lored Babbler 726a 
F.com., few, prob.res., breeds, REM except March, August, September and 
November. A very local species found in open bush and cultivation. 

Like the next species its movements appear to be erratic, and it may be 
absent for weeks or months from its usual haunts. 

684. Turdoides plebejus cinereus Brown Babbler 723b 
F.com., f. num. -few, prob.res., breeds, REM. Widespread in areas of 
elephant grass and rank overgrown cultivation. Also occurs in gardens, 
even in central Kampala. Its movements are not clear, and its presence 

is unpredictable , as it is unaccountably absent for weeks or months . 
Seen usually in noisy parties. 

Family CAMPEPHAGIDAE Cuckoo Shrikes 

688. Campephaga flava Black Cuckoo Shrike 1081 

Sc. , status uncertain, no breeding records. Recorded at Entebbe, Kaazi 
(November) and Kampala (April and June). Inhabits gardens . and places 
with small or medium trees. Some males in the area have yellow shoulders, ] 
but the all black variety is probably commoner. Refs: BNL 3; Pearson; 
pers.obs. 

690. Campephaga phoenicea Red-shouldered Cuckoo Shrike 1083 

V. com. -com., few, res., loc.mig., breeds, REM, but with a marked 
increase in numbers between January and April. Widespread, usually 
in pairs in the upper branches of trees. 



44 



691. Campephaga quiscalina martini Purple-throated Cuckoo Shrike 1084a 
Recorded in the literature at Mabira. Ref s : van Someren (1916 & 1922); 
Hamel (1980) . 

Family PYCNONOTIDAE Bulbuls 

697. Andropadus curvirostris curvirostris Cameroon Sombre Greenbul 774 
F.com.-uncom. , few, prob.res., breeds. Occurs in the forests, including 
Entebbe, Kifu, Kyagwe (April) , Mabira, Mpumu, Sezibwa and Zika where it 

is probably fairly common, but is under-recorded. Ranges while feeding 
from the tops of medium sized trees to the undergrowth. Refs: Seth- 
Smith (1913); van Someren (1916 & 1922); Okia (1976); Hamel (1980); 
Nest Record; Pearson. 

698. Andropadus gracilirostris congensis Slender-billed Greenbul 771b,c 
Uncom. , few, prob.res., no breeding records. Another little known, and 
probably under-recorded bulbul with old records at Entebbe, Kyagwe, 
Kyetema, Mabira, Mpumu and Sezibwa. There is a recent record for Kifu 

(August) . Occurs sometimes at the forest edge and undergrowth, but mostly 
in the canopy of fruiting trees in the forest. Usually in pairs, or small 
parties. Refs: Seth-Smith (1913); van Someren (1916); BNL 36; Hamel (1980) 

699. Andropadus gracilis ugandae Little Grey Greenbul 772a 
F.com., few, prob.res., no breeding records. Almost certainly under- 
recorded, and is probably common in all the forests. Dated records are 
for January. It frequents the upper foliage of fruiting trees. 

701. Andropadus latirostris eugenius Yellow-whiskered Greenbul 776 

Com., f. num. -few, prob.res., breeds, dated records are for January, April, 
May, July and November. Occurs in dense tall undergrowth and small trees 
in secondary as well as primary forest, and is probably present in all the 
forests here. 

705. Andropadus virens holochlorus Little Greenbul 775a 
Com., f.num., res., breeds, REM. Widespread in forest edge, thickets and 
secondary bush. Appears to keep mostly to the undergrowth and thickets, 
but also seen in the canopy of fruiting trees. 

706. Baeopogon indicator indicator Honeyguide Greenbul 751 
Uncom., few, prob.res., no breeding records. Has been recorded in tall 
trees at Bukasa (March, April), Entebbe, Kaazi, Kifu (August, September), 
Mabira and Sezibwa. Refs: van Someren (1916, 1918 & 1922); BNL 2,25,36; 
Hamel (1980). 

707. Bleda eximia ugandae Green-tailed Bristlebill 747 
Uncom., few, prob.res., no breeding records. Occurs in the forests 
including Kifu (June), Kyagwe, Mabira (July) and Sezibwa, but there are 
few recent records, and it appears to be local. Inhabits the undergrowth 
and the lower reaches of the forest, and often near ant trails. 

Refs: van Someren (1916, 1922 & 1932); BNL 34; Hamel (1980); Zoology 
Museum . 

708. Bleda syndactyla woosnami Bristlebill 746 
F.com.-uncom., few, prob.res., breeds, dated records for March to May and 
October to December. Commoner than the previous species with more recent 
records. Found in forest undergrowth and dense bush at Bukasa, Gaba, Kifu 
and Mabira. Refs: van Someren (1916); BNL 2,26; Hamel (1980); Zoology 
Museum; Pearson. 



45 



709. Chlorocichla flavicollis pallidigula Yellow- throated Leaf love 749 
V.com., num., res., breeds, REM. Widespread and often seen, or heard in 
secondary growth, undergrowth, thick bush and gardens, and keeps well 
hidden . 

711. Chlorocichla laetissima Joyful Greenbul 770 

Sc, few, status uncertain, no breeding records. Has been recorded in 
thick bush at Bukasa (October) , Entebbe, Kaazi (November) and Mabira. 
Said to occur in small flocks in forest canopy. Refs : Williams (1967); 
BNL 3; Britton (ed.) (1980); Hamel (1980). 

714. Criniger calurus emini Red- tailed Greenbul 745 
F.com., few, prob.res. , no breeding records. It is probably under- 
recorded and may be locally common. The only dated records are for 
April. Occurs in small parties both in undergrowth and forest tree tops. 

715. Ixonotus guttatus bugoma Spotted Greenbul 752 
Sc, few, prob.res., no breeding records. Recent sight records at Bukasa 

(March, April) and Kifu (January) , Mpigi (unconfirmed) . Occurs mostly in 
the upper foliage in forests, but is also sometimes in low bushes. 
Refs: BNL 2,29; Britton (ed. ) (1980); Pearson. 

716. Nicator chloris chloris Nicator 1148a 
Com., few, res., breeds, dated records for March, April, July and November. 
Widespread singly or in pairs in tall undergrowth, and the mid-stratum of 
trees in thick bush and forest. 

718. Phyllastrephus albigularis White-throated Greenbul 761 
Com., f. num. -few, prob.res., no breeding records, REM except February, 
April and September. Widespread in the undergrowth in primary forest 

and secondary growth throughout. 

719. Phyllastrephus baumanni hypochloris Toro Olive Greenbul 760 
Sc, few, prob.res., no breeding records, no dated records. Found in 
primary forest at Entebbe, Mabira and Mpanga. Usually in tangled under- 
growth in pairs or small parties. Refs: van Someren (1922); Hamel (1980); 
Pearson. 

727. Phyllastrephus placidus sucosus Placid Greenbul 758c 
Mostly a highland bird in other parts of Uganda. There are records in 

the past for Mabira, and recent possible sight records at Namulonge. 
Its presence here requires confirmation. Refs: van Someren (1932 & 
1949) ; BNL 24. 

728. Phyllastrephus scandens orientalis Leaf love 750 
Sc. , few, prob.res., no breeding records. Recorded in forests and wooded 
areas such as Kifu (June, July), Mabira (June) and Mukono (July). 
Frequents tree tops, thickets and dense tangled creepers. Refs: BNL 23, 
34; Hamel (1980); pers.obs. 

732. Pycnonotus barbatus tricolor Common Bulbul 742a 

V.com., num., res., breeds, REM. Widespread in gardens, bush, forest edge, 
cultivation as well as in central urban areas. 

Family TURDIDAE Thrushes, Robins etc. 

734. Alethe diademata woosnami Fire-crested Alethe 901 

F.com., few, prob.res., no breeding records, dated records for January, 
March-May and August. Widespread usually in pairs, or singly in thick 
forest and forest edge. Has been recorded in most of the forests here. 
Keeps low in the undergrowth, and is often seen on the ground at ant trails 



46 






736. Alethe poliocephala carruthersi Brown-chested Alethe 903a 

Uncom., few, prob.res., no breeding records. Records in forest under- 
growth at Entebbe, Kifu (July, September) and Mabira (June) , probably 
under- recorded. Usually seen on the forest floor, and is attracted to 
ant trails. Refs: van Someren (1916); BNL 25,34,35; Hamel (1980); 
Pearson . 

743. Cercotrichas hartlaubi Brown-backed Scrub Robin 914 
Com., f.num., prob.res., no breeding records, REM. Widespread in tall 
grass, especially elephant grass, rank overgrown cultivation and tall 
bush. Usually seen singly, and keeps well hidden. 

744. Cercotrichas leucophrys zambesiana White-browed Scrub Robin 910a 
Uncom., few, prob.res., no breeding records. Much less common than the 
previous species, but occasionally seen in rather similar habitat. 
Perhaps frequents rather drier areas, and is less dependent on long grass. 
Recorded at Gaba (October) , Kampala (August) , Lutembe (June) , Namulonge 

(June) and Zika. Refs: Okia (1976); BNL 9,10; pers.obs. 

750. Cossypha cyanocampter bartteloti Blue-shouldered Robin Chat 889 
Sc, few, prob.res., no breeding records. A little known inhabitant of 
some of the forests here. It has been recorded at Kifu (April, June, 
August) and Mabira (June) . Keeps to the undergrowth and forest floor, 
and said to favour streams and swampy places in the forest. 

Refs: van Someren (1916); BNL 32,34,36; Hamel (1980). 

751. Cossypha heuglini heuglini White-browed Robin Chat 884a 
V.com., num., res., breeds, REM. Widespread throughout from central 
Kampala parks and gardens to dense bush and forest edge. Shy and 
retiring, it usually keeps to bushes and thick cover, but sometimes 

comes into the open to feed. 

752. Cossypha natalensis intensa or hylophona Red-capped Robin Chat 890 
Uncom., few, prob.res., breeds. Dated records are for January, April, May, 
September and October. Found in some of the forests here including 
Entebbe, Kifu, Mabira and Mpumu. Elsewhere in East Africa it has been 
found to be migratory, but data here is too scanty to draw conclusions. 
Refs: Seth-Smith (1913); van Someren (1916); BNL 22,26,29,33,37; Hamel 

(1980) . 

753. Cossypha niveicapilla melanonota Snowy-headed Robin Chat 892 
F.com., f.num., res., breeds, REM. Requires denser cover and thickets 
than C. heuglini and does not venture into central Kampala. Inhabits 
forest patches and forest edge as well as thickets. 

761. Dryocichloides poliopterus poliopterus Grey-winged Ground Robin 887 
Recorded in the past at Kyetema, Kyetume (June, breeding), Mabira, Mpumu 
(June) where it was described as "rare", and Sezibwa. There are no 
recent records, and Hamel (1980) suggests that is may have been replaced 
locally by Cossypha cyanocampter. Refs: Seth-Smith (1913); van Someren 
(1916,1922 & 1932); Hamel (1980); Nest Record. 

764. Luscinia megarhynchos megarhynchos and hafizi Nightingale 921a, b 

Sc. , few, P.WV. Recorded on a very few occasions from November to January 
in bush and forest edge at Entebbe and Mpumu. Keeps well hidden in dense 
bush. First date : 2 November; last date: January. Refs: Pearson (1972b) 
Pearson. 

769. Monticola saxatilis Rock Thrush 850 

Sc. , few, P.WV. Recorded at Entebbe, Kampala and Namulonge in December and 
January. It is a noticeable bird where it occurs, perching on the tops of 



47 



bushes, thickets and posts. Ref s : BNL 17; Ash. 

771. Myrmecocichla nigra Sooty Chat 880 

V.com., num., res., breeds, REM. Found in open grassy areas both by the 
Lake shore, especially on the promontories, and inland. Associated 
with termite mounds, and has been recorded in Kampala in suitable 
habitat. 

775. Oenanthe isabellina Isabelline Wheatear 855 

Sc. , few, P.WV. Recorded a few times in open short grass, and bare earth 
areas from October to February at Entebbe, Lutembe and Mabira. First date: 
31 October; last date: 20 February. Ref s : Pearson (1972b); Ash; pers.obs. 

777. Oenanthe oenanthe oenanthe Northern Wheatear 854a 

F.com., few, P.WV or pass.mig. Seen much more often than the previous 
species, but its abundance varies from year to year. Almost all records 
are for October, November and December, with some in January, February 
and March. It inhabits open grassy areas, being typically found near 
the Lake. Most often recorded at Entebbe Airport. First date: 24 September; 
last date: 16 March. 

779. Oenanthe pleschanka pleschanka Pied Wheatear 859a 

One sight record for this Palaearctic migrant at Namulonge on 13 December 
1971. Normally occurs in drier areas to the north and east of here. 
Ref: BNL 18. 

781. Phoenicurus phoenicurus phoenicurus Redstart 917a 

Sc. , few, P.WV. Recorded in the past at Entebbe in February and March; 
with one recent sight record at Kaazi in January 1967. Normally found 
in tall bush, dry woodland and thickets, where it keeps well hidden. 
Ref: Pearson (1972b). 

783. Saxicola rubetra Whinchat 883 
V.com., num., P.WV. Occurs from September to April, and is widespread 

in open damp, grassy country, with scattered bushes, marshy areas and 
swamp edges. There are more records for October and March, suggesting 
a small passage. Usually seen singly, but sometimes several individuals 
will congregate in a favoured spot. First date: 12 September; last 
date: 16 April. 

784. Saxicola torquata axillaris Stonechat 882d 
Uncom. , few, no breeding records. Surprisingly few records; mainly in 
areas of open bush and grassland. May have been more common in the 

past, and is common in the sugar estates to the east of this area. 
Has been recorded at Entebbe, Kampala (May, September), Kasanje (April), 
Kibanga Port (May, November) , Kikaya (January) , Mabira and Mpumu. 
Usually seen perched on bushes and telegraph wires. Refs: Seth-Smith 
(1913); van Someren (1922); BNL 20,27,41; Zoology Museum; Pearson; pers. 
obs. 

789. Stiphrornis erythrothorax xanthogaster Forest Robin 900 
Uncom., few, prob.res., no breeding records. Inhabits dense, shady 
forest undergrowth, and may be more common than the few records suggest. 
Recorded at Kifu and Mabira in January and June to August. 

Refs: van Someren (1916); Friedman & Williams (1969); BNL 29,35,37; 
Hamel (1980) ; Zoology Museum. 

790. Stizorhina fraseri vulpina Rufous Thrush 810 
F.com., status unclear, prob.res., no breeding records. Most dated 
records are for April (5) , with one in March and two in June. Found in 
most of the forests here where it frequents the canopy. 



48 






801. Turdus pelios centralis African Thrush 840c 

V.com., num., res., breeds, REM. The common thrush here. Widespread 
throughout from urban Kampala to forest edge. 

Family SYLVIIDAE Warblers 

805. Acrocephalus arundinaceus arundinaceus and zarudnyi Great Reed 

Warbler 942a,b 
F.com., few, P.WV. Recorded from late November to April in tall grass, 
cultivation and bush. It is widespread and most common near the Lake 
shore, but keeps well hidden in thick vegetation. First date: 17 November; 
last date: 25 April. 

806. Acrocephalus baeticatus cinnamomeus African Reed Warbler 946a 
Uncom. , few, no breeding records, prob.res. Recorded by the Lake shore 

at Gaba and Lutembe in small numbers in dense bush. Dated records are 
for March (2) , April (2) , May, September and December (4) . Elsewhere 
in East Africa there is evidence of migratory movements. It may be 
under-recorded here. Retiring in habits and keeps well hidden. 
Refs: Pearson (1972b) ; Ash; Pearson; pers.obs. 

807. Acrocephalus gracilirostris jacksoni Lesser Swamp Warbler 957b 
V.com. -com., f.num., res., breeds, REM. Found in papyrus swamp, reeds and 
other Lake shore vegetation, but is probably commonest on the rocky off- 
shore islands. 

808. Acrocephalus griseldis Basra Reed Warbler 943 
Sc. , P.WV. Recorded twice at Gaba On 13 November 1966 and 25 November 
1967. Refs: Pearson (1972a & 1972b); Mann (1976). 

809. Acrocephalus palustris Marsh Warbler 945 
Sc. , P. autumn pass.mig. All records are the result of mist netting at 
Gaba in thick bush, and are for November and early December only. 

Refs: Pearson (1972a & 1972b); pers.obs. 

810. Acrocephalus rufescens niloticus Greater Swamp Warbler 955b 
Recorded only in the literature at Entebbe. Ref: Ogilvie-Grant (1910). 

811. Acrocephalus schoenobaenus Sedge Warbler 947 
V. com. -com. , few, P.WV & pass.mig. Recorded from November to May in 
dense Lake-side bush, and sometimes in papyrus. Although there is an 
evident spring passage in late March and April the bird occurs in some 
numbers from December to April, but abundance varies from year to year. 
First date: 14 November; last date: 1 May. 

812. Acrocephalus scirpaceus fuscus Reed Warbler 944b 
V.com., f.num., P.WV. Present from September to May and is found in 
dense bush and rank herbage. Although most numerous near the Lake - , it 

is often seen away from water in suitable habitat, including gardens. 
Forages in the mid-stratum of trees as well as low down in thickets. 
First date: 25 September; last date: 1 May. 

817. Apalls cinerea cinerea Grey Apalis 973 
Recorded in the literature at Mpumu, where it is stated to be probably 
"common" in the tops of the high forest trees. Refs: Seth-Smith 

(1913) ; Hamel (1980) . 

818. Apalis flavida caniceps Yellow-breasted Apalis 980a 
Com., f.num., prob.res., no breeding records, REM. Widespread in open 
woodland, bush, gardens, secondary growth and medium sized trees. 



49 



819. Apalis jacksoni jacksoni Black- throated Apalis 982 

Uncom. , few, prob.res., breeds. Dated records are for. March, April, 
June and July. Occurs in primary forest and other areas of tall trees 
including Busi , Entebbe, Kibanga Port, Kifu, Mabira, Mpumu and Mukono. 
Usually in small groups high in the canopy, but also occasionally 
forages in the undergrowth. Refs: Seth-Smith (1913) ; van Someren (1916); 
BNL 19,20,23; Hamel (1980). 

823. Apalis nigriceps collaris Black-capped Apalis 983 

Recorded in the literature for Entebbe and Mabira. Refs: van Someren 
(1916 & 1922); Hamel (1980). 

826. Apalis rufogularis nigrescens Buff- throated Apalis 972, 976 

F.com., few, prob.res., no breeding records. Dated records are for 
March, July and October. Usually seen singly or in pairs in primary 
and secondary forest; also some records away from forest in thickets 
and in groups of tall and medium sized trees. 

829. Bathmocercus cerviniventris vulpinus Black-faced Rufous Warbler 1053 
Sc. There is one sight record in Kifu on 9 July 1972. Another bird 
was heard in Mabira on 8 April 1972. Refs: BNL 32,35; Hamel (1980). 

834. Brady pterus carpalis White-winged Warbler 950 

F.com., few, prob.res., no breeding records. This inhabitant of papyrus 
swamps is certainly under-recorded, and is more common and widespread 
than the few records suggest. It has been recorded frequently at 
Namulonge in recent years, and there are old records in similar habitat 
along the Sezibwa River. 

837. Camaroptera brachyura tincta Grey-backed Camaroptera 1011b 
V.com., num., res., breeds, REM. The grey-backed form which occurs here 

is widespread in gardens, bush and forest edge, singly or in pairs. 
Usually creeps about in the undergrowth, but occasionally feeds in low 
trees. 

838. Camaroptera chloronota toroensis Olive-green Camaroptera 1010 
Uncom., few, prob.res., no breeding records. Records in primary forest 
including Kifu (January, September) and Mabira (April, October, November) 
where it may be not uncommon. Perhaps occurs in other forests too and is 
under-recorded. Inhabits the undergrowth. Refs: van Someren (1916 & 1922); 
BNL 25,29,32; Hamel (1980). 

841. Camaroptera superciliaris Yellow-browed Camaroptera 1012 

Sc. , few, prob.res., no breeding records. Recorded in Kifu (October), 
Mabira (January, April, November, December) and Mpanga. Inhabits low 
trees and forest undergrowth, and dense tangled creepers. 
Refs: van Someren (1922); BNL 26,32; Hamel (1980); Pearson. 

843. Chloropeta natalensis massaica Yellow Warbler 805b 

Sc. , status uncertain, no breeding records. Recorded in the literature 
from Entebbe and Mabira. There is a recent sight record from the Lake 
shore at Gaba in open bush on 26 November 1978. Occurs in dense long 
grass, bush and tangled herbage. Refs: Ogilvie-Grant (1910); van Someren 
(1916); pers.obs. 



50 



CISTICOLAS : There are ten species of Cisticolas recorded here. Of these, 
three: erythrops , galactotes and natalensis are very common. Seven are 
recorded occasionally, and may be overlooked: ayresii f brachyptera, 
carruthersi, juncidis , lateralis , robusta and woosnami . 

848. Cisticola ayresii entebbe Wing-snapping Cisticola 1019c 

Uncom. , few, prob.res., breeds. Dated records are for February to May. 
Occurs in short tussocky grass at Entebbe. Refs: Friedmann & Loveridge 
(1937) ; pers.obs. 

850. Cisticola brachyptera brachyptera Sif fling Cisticola 1037a 

F.com., few, prob.res., no breeding records. Dated records are for 
January, April and October to December. Probably under- re corded. 
Occurs in bushed grassland at Entebbe, Kampala, Kyetema, Kyetume, 
Mabira and Mpumu. Refs: Jackson (1901); Seth-Smith (1913); van Someren 
(1922); Friedmann & Williams (1969); Ash; pers.obs. 

853. Cisticola carruthersi Carruthers' Cisticola 1034 

Uncom. -sc, few, prob.res., no breeding records. Recorded in the 
literature at Entebbe and Sezibwa (March) . Recent records are for Gaba 
(April, May) and Entebbe (October , December ) . It is confined to papyrus 
swamp so is probably overlooked. Refs: van Someren (1922); Ash; pers. 
obs. 

857. Cisticola erythrops sylvia Red-faced Cisticola 1032b 

V.com., num., res., breeds, REM. With C. galactotes this is the most 
common cisticola here. Widespread in overgrown gardens, long grass, 
bush, rank cultivation and elephant grass. 

860. Cisticola .galactotes amphilecta Winding Cisticola 1033e 

V.com., num., res., breeds, REM One of the commonest cisticolas here, 
with C. erythrops . Occurs in damper areas than erythrops, and is wide- 
spread in long swampy grass throughout, including central Kampala in 
quite small patches of damp elephant grass. 

862. Cisticola juncidis uropygialis Zitting Cisticola 1016b 

F.com., few, prob.res., breeds, REM except January, February and May. 
Recorded in open grassy Lake-side areas at Entebbe and Lutembe 

864. Cisticola lateralis antinorii Whistling Cisticola 1025 

F.com., few, prob.res., no breeding records. Dated records are for 
January, May, September, October and November. Recorded in the 
literature at Entebbe, Kampala, Kisubi (where it is described as "very 
plentiful"), Mabira and Mpumu (where it is described as "common"). 
Recent records are for Kisubi, Lutembe and Kibanga Port, but it may be 
under- re corded. Found in short grass among bush and small trees, near 
thickets and forest edges. 

866. Cisticola natalensis strangei Croaking Cisticola 1036b 

V.c6m., f.num., res., breeds, REM. Most records are for the Lake shore 
in long damp grass with thickets and bush. 

869. Cisticola robusta nuchalis Stout Cisticola 1035b 

Uncom. -sc, few, prob.res., no breeding records. Few records in long 
damp grasslands and sugar fields at Entebbe, Kajansi (August) , Kyetema 
and Mabira. Refs: van Someren (1916); BNL 12. 

873. Cisticola woosnami woosnami Trilling Cisticola 1026a 

Sc, breeds. Recorded in the literature at Entebbe, Kyetume (May) and 
Mabira, and there is one recent record for Kibanga Port (November) . 
Refs: Jackson (1901); van Someren (1922); BNL 27; Nest Record. 



51 



875. Eminia lepida Grey-capped Warbler 993 

V.com., num., res., breeds, REM. Widespread in gardens,, bush, 
cultivation and forest edge. Keeps well hidden in dense thickets. 

885. Hippolais icterina Icterine Warbler 935 

Sc, few, P.WV & pass.mig. It has been known to winter in a Kampala 
garden, but is mostly a passage migrant recorded in October, November 
and March, April. Frequents areas of trees and open woodland. 
First date: 3 October; last date 25 March. Refs: Pearson (1972b); 
BNL 28,31; Pearson; Sheldon. 

888. Hippolais pallida elaeica Olivaceous Warbler 938b 
Sc. , P.WV. Three records only at Gaba on 19 November, at Mukono on 

29 December 1970 and at Lutembe on 17 December 1981. It occurs more 
commonly in arid and semi-arid acacia country. Refs: BNL 17; Pearson 
(1972b); Sheldon; pers.obs. 

889. Hylia prasina prasina Green Hylia 1281 
Com., few, prob.res., no breeding records. Dated records are for March, 
April, September and October. Widespread in forest and thick bush, and 

is seen both in tree tops and low in the undergrowth, usually singly, or 
sometimes in pairs. 

891. Hyliota flavigaster flavigaster Yellow-bellied Hyliota 813a 

Recorded in the literature at Kyetume and Mabira. Refs: van Someren 
(1916 & 1922) ; Hamel (1980) . 

895. Macrosphenus concolor Grey Longbill 1015 
Recorded in the literature at Kyetume and Mabira. Refs: van Someren 

(1916, 1922 & 1932); Hamel (1980). 

896. Macrosphenus flavicans hypochondriacus Yellow Longbill 1014 
Sc. , few, prob.res., no breeding records. Dated records are for February, 
August and September in Kifu and Mabira. Said to occur in pairs creeping 
about in low dense, tangled herbage in the forest. Refs: van Someren 

(1916 & 1922); BNL 25,30,36; Hamel (1980). 

901. Pholidornis rushiae denti Tit Hylia 1282 

Sc, no breeding records. A pair was collected in the past in Mabira, 
and there is a recent sight record also in Mabira on 8 April 1972. 
Said to inhabit tall forest trees. Refs: BNL 32; Hamel (1980). 

904. Phylloscopus collybita abietinus Chiffchaff 960k 

Sc. , P.WV. There is a sight record in the literature for Entebbe, and 
recent sight records at Kikaya (December, February) , Kaazi (March) and 
Entebbe (April) . Other records for Uganda are from the east, and usually 
in highland areas. Refs: BNL 6,7,16; Ash. 

907. Phylloscopus sibilatrix Wood Warbler 961 
Sc. , P.WV. Recorded in the literature at Mpumu and recent sight records 
at Mukono on 29 December 1971, Entebbe 27 March 1983 and 5 April 1983. 

It inhabits open forest and woodland. Refs: Seth-Smith (1913); BNL 18; 
Ash. 

908. Phylloscopus trochilus acredula and yakutensis Willow Warbler 9591 
V.com. -com., num., P.WV & pass.mig. The race yakutensis is estimated 

at 7.5% of the total. Widespread in gardens and open bush, among trees 
and tall thickets from mid-September to the end of April. There is a 
marked autumn passage in October and November, and a smaller less 
noticeable spring passage. During these times small parties of up to 
15 or 20 birds are fairly commonly seen. Many winter here, and single 



52 



birds are seen in all winter months . Commonly forages in the mid- 
stratum or canopy of trees, or in the very top of tall thickets. Only 
rarely does it venture lower down. First date: 10 September; last 
date: 1 May. Ref: Pearson (1972b). 

911. Prinia leucopogon reichenowi White-chinned Prinia 1048 

Com., few, res., breeds, REM. Widespread usually in pairs or small 
parties which move restlessly among the bushes or low trees by the Lake- 
side. There are records away from the Lake, but it appears to be 
commoner among the Lake-side vegetation and cultivation. 

913. Prinia subflava melanorhyncha Tawny-flanked Prinia 1045c 
V.com., num., res., breeds, REM. Widespread in gardens, bush, elephant 
grass and overgrown cultivation. Needs cover and favours rank vegetation. 

914. Schoenicola platyura alexinae Fan-tailed Warbler 969b 
Recorded in the literature at Entebbe and Mpumu. Ref s : Seth-Smith 

(.1913) ; van Someren (1916 & 1922) . 

915. Sphenoeacus mentalis mentalis Moustached Warbler 1051b 
Com., f.num., res., breeds, REM. Found in long grass, rank herbage and 
cultivation. Usually keeps well hidden in low dense cover and is heard 
more often than seen. 

917. Sylvia atricapilla atricapilla or dammholzi Blackcap 926a, b 
Sc. , P.WV. Most records are from thick Lake-side bush at Gaba and 
Entebbe, also Mukono. Dated records are for December, January and 
February. It usually winters in highland areas. Refs : Jackson (1914); 
Pearson (1972b); BNL 17; Pearson. 

918. Sylvia borin woodwardi Garden Warbler 925 
V.com. -com., f.num., P.WV & pass.mig. Recorded from September to May, 
and there is a marked passage from late October to early December. 
Widespread in bush, gardens and thickets, and sometimes forest edge. 
Usually forages fairly low down. First date: 25 September; last date: 

1 May. 

NOTE: Of the three common Palaearctic migrant warblers in the area Sylvia borin 
usually forages in thickets, Phylloscopus trochilus in the mid or top 
strata of trees, and Acrocephalus scirpaceus both in thickets and in the 
mid-stratum of trees. 

919. Sylvia communis icterops & one poss. communis Whitethroat 924a,b 
Uncom. , few, P.WV. Has been recorded occasionally in open bush, mostly 

at the Lake-side from November to April at Entebbe, Gaba, Kampala and 
Lutembe. Normally favours more arid areas. First date: November; 
last date: 21 April. Refs: Pearson (1972b); BNL 28; Frankum; Pearson; 
pers . obs . 

920. Sylvia nisoria nisoria Barred Warbler 933 
Uncom. -sc, few, P.WV & autumn pass.mig. Most records are for Lake-side 
vegetation at Entebbe, Gaba and Lutembe from October to April, especially 
October and November. Refs: Pearson (1972a & 1972b); Ash. 

921. Sylvietta brachyura carnapi Northern Crombec 996c 
Uncom., few, prob.res., no breeding records. Dated records are for 
January and October at Gaba, Kampala, Mabira and Mpumu. Normally 
inhabits dry bush country. Refs: Seth-Smith (1913); van Someren 

(1916 & 1922); Frankum; Mann; Pearson; Pitman; pers. obs . 



53 



924. Sylvietta virens baraka Green Crombec 1001 
F.com., few, prob.res., breeds. Dated records are for February, March, 
April, May, September and November. This is probably the commonest 
crombec, and it is seen in dense bush, undergrowth, thickets and forest 
patches and forest edge. Many records are from the Lake-side. Usually 
seen singly, and keeps well hidden. 

925. Sylvietta whytii jacksoni Red-faced Crombec 997b 
Uncom. , few, prob.res., no breeding records. Occurs in more open habitat 
than the previous species. It is seen in scattered bush, trees and 
gardens, usually singly. Records are for Kaazi (August) , Kampala (November) 
and Kiteezi (October). Refs : van Someren (1922); BNL 2,3,36; Pearson. 

Family MUSCICAPIDAE Flycatchers 
Sub-family Muscicapinae 

926. Artomyias fuliginosa Sooty Flycatcher 804 
Sc. , few, prob.res., no breeding records. The few records in the 
literature imply that it was fairly common in Mabira in the past. There 
is one recent sight record at Kifu on 28 August 1972. Perhaps overlooked 
as it inhabits tree tops in forest. Refs: van Someren (1916,1922 & 1949); 
BNL 36; Hamel (1980) . 

928. Bradornis pallidus murinus Pale Flycatcher 792c 

Recorded in the literature at Entebbe and Kyetume. Refs: van Someren 
(1921 & 1922) . 

930. Ficedula albicollis probably semi tor guata Collared Flycatcher 779 
Uncom. -sc. , P.pass.mig. There are seven dated records, all for single 
birds: Kaazi 29 September 1966 & 24 September 1968; Kampala adult male 
26 June 1968, female (ringed) 7 September 1970, female 30 November 1977, 
adult male 14 February 1982; Lutembe 8 October 1983. Occurs in bushed 
and wooded grassland, and gardens with trees. Refs: BNL 13; Ash; 
Frankum; Pearson; pers.obs. 

934. Melaenornis edolioides lugubris Black Flycatcher 798a 

V.com., num., res., breeds, REM. Widespread throughout in gardens, 
including central Kampala, bush and cultivation with scattered trees. 
Usually in pairs and often crepuscular. 

936. Muscicapa adusta pumila Dusky Flycatcher 781c 
Com., f .num. , res., breeds, REM. Widespread, usually in pairs, from outer 
suburban gardens in Kampala to open bush and woodland. Usually perches in 
the lower branches of trees. 

937. Muscicapa aquatica infulata Swamp Flycatcher 782b 
Com., f.num., res., breeds, REM. Widespread round the Lake shore, singly 
or in pairs in the restricted habitat of papyrus, or other Lake-side 
vegetation, including trees. Also occasionally seen in inland swamps. 

938. Muscicapa caerulescens brevicaudata Ashy Flycatcher 785a 
Sc. , few, prob.res., breeds. Few records in the literature for Entebbe, 
Kyagwe» Kyetema, Mabira (September) and Mpumu (June) , and recent sight 
records at Kifu (September) and Entebbe (April) . Inhabits open forest 

and forest edge. Refs: Seth-Smith (1913); van Someren (1922); BNL 25; 
Hamel (1980) ; Nest Record; Ash. 

940. Muscicapa comitata Dusky Blue Flycatcher 803 

Uncom., few, prob.res., no breeding records. Said in the literature to 
frequent open forest, and recorded at Mabira and Murchison Bay. Recent 
records are from thick bush and secondary growth at Katalemwa, Kifu, 



54 



Namulonge (January, August, September) and Zika. Ref s : van Someren 
(1916); Okia (1976); BNL 24,25,29; Hamel (1980); Pearson. 

942. Muscicapa griseigularis Grey- throated Flycatcher 786 

Uncom., few, prob.res., breeds. Found in primary forest including Kifu 
(March, September) , Mabira, Mpumu (March) and Zika. Said to occur near 
water. Refs: Seth-Smith (1913); van Someren (1916); Okia (1976); 
BNL 31,37; Hamel (1980). 

945. Muscicapa striata neumanni and possibly striata Spotted Flycatcher 778a, 
Com., few, P.pass.mig. & occasional WV. Recorded from September to April 
with most records for October-November and March-April. Usually occurs 
singly and is widespread in open bush, light woodland, cultivation and 
gardens, sometimes even in central Kampala. First date: 22 September; 
last date: 24 April. 

946. Myioparus plumbeus plumbeus Lead-coloured Flycatcher 788a 
F.com., few, prob.res., breeds, REM except January, July to September 

and December. Local, solitary, retiring and occurs in thick bush, 
secondary growth and forest edge, mostly, but not only by the Lake shore. 
Frequents the mid and lower strata of trees, and the tops of tall bushes. 

Sub-family Platysteirinae 

949. Batis minor erlangeri Black-headed Batis 820b 

Uncom., few, prob.res., breeds. Recorded in pairs or small parties in 
medium sized trees in open woodland and gardens at Buziranjovu (May) , 
Entebbe, Kampala, Kikaya (April, December) , Kyetema, Kyetume (April) , 
Lutembe (September), Mabira, Mpumu and Sezibwa. Refs: Seth-Smith 

(1913); van Someren (1922); Friedmann & Loveridge (1937); Allen & Fripp 

(1964); BNL 4,20; Nest Record; Pearson; pers.obs. 

955. Bias musicus musicus Black and White Flycatcher 812a 
V. com. -com., f.num., res., breeds, REM, but in most years they are more 
noticeable between October and mid-March. One of the few species that 
appears to have become more widespread and increased in numbers in recent 
years. Described by Jackson (1938) as "nowhere very plentiful", but 
since the 1970s there has been a gradual increase in numbers, particularly 
in central Kampala where it has adapted to the gardens. Found in tall 
bush and the top of medium sized trees. 

956. Megabyas flammulata aequatorialis Shrike Flycatcher 811 
Uncom. -sc. , few, prob.res., breeds. Local; occurs in forest including 
Entebbe, Kaazi, Kifu (February, May, July, October), Mabira (April) and 
Mpumu (April). Refs: Ogilvie-Grant (1910); Seth-Smith (1913); 

van Someren (1916 & 1922); BNL 23,26,30,32,33; Hamel (1980). 

957. Platysteira blissetti jamesoni Jameson's Wattle-eye 825 
Sc, prob.res., no breeding records. Few records in the literature, and 
Jackson (1938) describes it as "local" and "common" in Mabira where he 
obtained 17 specimens. It occurs in the densest undergrowth, and has 
probably been overlooked recently as there is only one single sight 
record at Kifu on 12 June 1972. Refs: van Someren (1916); BNL 34; Hamel 
(1980) . 

958. Platysteira castanea castanea Chestnut Wattle-eye 824 
Com., few, prob.res., breeds. Dated records for January, April, May, 
August to October. Usually in pairs, in forest throughout. Forages 

in tall undergrowth, or lower branches of trees. 



55 



960. Platysteira cyanea nyansae Wattle-eye - 822a 

V.com., f.num., res., breeds, REM. Widespread, usually in pairs in open 
bush and gardens, even in central Kampala. Inhabits small or medium 
sized trees and bushes . 

Sub-family Monarchinae 

963. Erannornis longicauda teresita Blue Flycatcher 827a 

V. com. -com., f.num., res., breeds, REM. Widespread, usually in pairs or 
small parties in open bush, woodland, gardens and cultivation in medium 
sized and thick foliaged trees. Keeps to the shade while foraging warbler- 
like. 

967. Terpsiphone rufiventer emini and somereni Red-bellied Paradise 835a, 

Flycatcher* b 
Com., f.num., res., breeds, REM. This is basically a forest species, 
and the race somereni occurs in the true forests here. In the more open 
areas of light bush , woodland gardens and fragmented forest the form emini 
occurs. Emini individuals have much lighter rufous underparts than 
somereni . Occasionally individuals are seen with underparts a mixture of 
grey and rufous. These are possibly emini hybrids with T. viridis ferreti. 
There is at least one recent breeding record when a single chick was 
hatched, between a male with palish grey underparts and moderately elong- 
ated tail feathers, and a female with very pale rufous underparts. This is 
thought to be an example of continuing hybridization. Emini itself is 
probably the result of hybridization between somereni and T. viridis. 

968. Terpsiphone viridis ferreti and restricta Paradise Flycatcher* 832a, c 
Com., f.num., res., breeds, REM. The commonest form here is rufous 

above and rather pale grey below, with fairly elongated tail feathers in 
the male. These individuals are probably ferreti, and some males with 
white or partly white tails or wings are occasionally seen. The race 
restricta occurs on the islands and possibly on the Lake shore. It is a 
much darker race almost glossy black below shading to dark grey on the 
belly. The upperparts are a rich deep rufous, and the tail long in the 
male. There are commonly some white feathers in tail and wings. Both 
T. viridis and T. rufiventer inhabit similar sort of habitat, but viridis 
favours a slightly more open area; however they occur alongside each other 
in the same garden. See previous species (967) for an example of hybrid- 
ization. 

972. Trochocercus nigromitratus Dusky Crested Flycatcher 831 j 
Sc. , few, prob.res., breeds. Records in the literature for Mabira (April),; 
and one sight record at Kifu on 8 January 1972. Inhabits dense primary 
forest, and undergrowth. Ref s : van Someren (1916 & 1932); BNL 29; Hamel 
(1980) ; Nest Record. 

973. Trochocercus nitens nitens Blue-headed Crested Flycatcher 830 
Recorded in the literature at Mabira. Ref s : van Someren (1916 & 1922); 
Hamel (1980). 

Family MOTACILLIDAE Wagtails, Pipits, Longclaws 

976. Anthus campestris campestris Tawny Pipit 702 

There is a single record at Entebbe on 4 December 1966 which constitutes 
the only record for Uganda. It is an inhabitant of short grass areas. 
Refs: Pearson (1972a & 1972b); Mann (1976). 



56 



977. Anthus cervinus Red- throated Pipit 713 
Uncom. , few, P.WV. Recorded in small numbers from November to April in 
damp grassland at the Lake shore at Entebbe, Gaba and Lutembe. 

First date: 12 November; last date: 1 April. Refs. Pearson (1972b); 
Ash ; Sheldon ; pers . obs . 

978. Anthus leucophrys zenkeri Plain-backed Pipit 704b 
Com., few, prob.res., breeds, REM except August. Sometimes absent from 

its usual haunts. Seen in open short grass areas, with bare earth patches 
and rocky outcrops, often on Lake shore promontories. It occurs alongside 
the next species. 

981. Anthus novaeseelandiae cinnamomeus Richard's Pipit 706b 
Com., few, prob.res., breeds, REM. Inhabits grassy open areas, and is 
sometimes found in longer grass than the previous species, though it also 
occurs alongside it. 

982. Anthus similis hallae Long-billed Pipit 703 
Sc, few, status uncertain, no breeding records. Records are for Entebbe, 
Kaazi (March) , Kampala and Kyetema. Its presence requires confirmation. 
Refs: van Someren (1916 & 1932); Allen & Fripp (1964); BNL 19. 

984. Anthus trivialis trivialis Tree Pipit 708 

Uncom., few, P.WV. Early observers indicate that this used to be common, 
or extremely common on migration. Recent records do not bear this out, 
so it would seem that its status in this area has changed. Now recorded 
occasionally in small numbers from October to April in open grassy areas 
including Entebbe, Kajansi, Kampala, Kyetema, Mabira and Mpumu. 
First date: 6 October; last date: 14 April. Refs: Seth-Smith (1913); 
van Someren (1916) ; Allen & Fripp (1964) ; Pearson (1972b) ; Ash; Pearson; 
pers. obs. 

988. Macronyx croceus croceus Yellow- throated Longclaw 716 

V. com., f.num., res., breeds, REM. Widespread in open bush and knee- 
high grass. Usually in pairs and often alights on the tops of bushes. 

991. Motacilla aguimp vidua African Pied Wagtail 691 
V.com., f.num., res., breeds, REM. One of the really urban birds of the 
area. Widespread round human habitation, from central Kampala to the 

Lake shore . Often seen running on the ground on pavements and car parks , 
bare earth areas and short grass near houses. 

992. Motacilla alba alba White Wagtail 690a 
Sc, P.WV. Recorded in the literature at Entebbe from November to January. 
Three recent sight records, two for Kajansi (16 December 1969 & January 
1970) and one for Namulonge (26 January 1972) all for single birds. Seen 

in gardens, and short grassy areas, sometimes near water. Refs: Jackson 
(1914); Anon (1950); BNL 5,29; Frankum. 

993. Motacilla capensis wellsi Cape Wagtail 693 
Uncom., status uncertain, no breeding records. Described in the literature 
as "common" at Busi. Recent sight records for Entebbe (April) , Lutembe 
(April to July) and Mabamba (June). It is a shy bird inhabiting mudbanks, 
swamp edge and floating vegetation, and is possibly overlooked. Refs: BNL 
22; Ash; pers. obs. 

•4. Motacilla cinerea cinerea Grey Wagtail 694 

P.mig. Recorded in the literature for near Kampala (October). Usually 
near running water, and most birds winter in highland areas near forest 
streams. One recent sight record for Entebbe 1 March 1983. Refs: Jackson 
(1938); Ash. 

57 



996. Motacilla flava Yellow Wagtail 

V.com. , ab. , P.WV. & pass.mig. Present from September to April in some 
numbers. There is an autumn passage from late October to early December, 
and also a spring passage from late March to early April. Occurs in short 
grass near the Lake and inland, often in association with cattle, some- 
times in flocks of several hundreds. Smaller numbers are seen in urban 
parks and on lawns . Has been observed feeding in trees at the Lake shore 
when the lake flies are swarming in the Lake-side vegetation. 
First date: 18 September; last date: 29 April thunbergi . 

M.f. beema Syke's Wagtail 695b 

Pearson (1972b) mentions one or two possibles for the area. It usually 
winters to the east of here. 

M.f. feldegg Black-headed Yellow Wagtail 699 

Does not arrive in the area until November, and is present in small 
numbers until the third week in April. More often associated with water 
than the other races. First date: 15 November; last date: third week 
in April. 

M.f. flava Blue-headed Yellow Wagtail 695a 

With thunbergi the commonest race here. It arrives first and forms about 
20% of all flocks, Pearson (1972b). Present from late September to early 
April. First date: 18 September; last date: 11 April. 

M.f. leucocephala White-headeld Yellow Wagtail 701 I 

Pearson (1972b) mentions a possible individual of this race seen at 
Entebbe on 4 April 1967. 

M.f. lutea Eastern Yellow Wagtail 697a 

There are a few records for this race, but it normally winters in drier 
areas. Ref s : van Someren (1922); Anon (1950); Pearson (1972b). 

M.f. thunbergi Dark-headed Yellow Wagtail 698a 

With flava this is the commonest form found in the area. Pearson (1972b) 
estimates that from 20-50% of flocks are of this race. Thunbergi arrives 
a little later than flava, and stays longer, being present from October 
to late April. Flava /thunbergi intermediates are very common and form 
from 30-60% of the flocks. First date: 12 October; last date: 29 April. 

M.f. cinereocapilla , M.f. dombrowski and M.f . flavissima 

These forms are recorded in the literature, but there are no recent records, 
and their presence is considered unlikely by Pearson. Refs: van Someren 
(1922 & 1932); Pearson (1972b). 

Family MALACONOTIDAE Bush Shrikes 

998. Dryoscopus angolensis nandensis Pink-footed Puffback 1132a 

Sc. , no breeding records. Recorded in the literature for Mabira, and 
with recent sight records for forest at Mukono in September. 
Refs: van Someren (1922); BNL 13. 

1000. Dryoscopus gambensis malzacii Northern Puffback 1131a 

V.com. -com., few, res., breeds, REM. Widespread in gardens, scattered 
bush, trees and open forest. Usually seen in pairs searching the canopy 
of tall trees, but also sometimes forages in bushes. Inconspicuous birds 
that keep well hidden, but their loud calls draw attention to them. 

1003. Laniarius barbarus erythrog aster Black -headed Gonolek 1119 

V.com., f.num., res., breeds, REM. Widespread throughout in the parks 
and gardens of central Kampala as well as the more rural areas. It is 
usually in pairs and keeps well hidden in bushes and hedges, rather than 
in trees. 



58 



i 



1004. Laniarius ferrugineus major Tropical Boubou 1125b 

V. com. -com. , few, res., breeds, REM. Fairly widespread, but does not 
venture into the gardens of central Kampala. Confined to the well- 
wooded outer suburbs , woodland and forest edge where it keeps to the 
low and mid canopy of trees, rather than bushes. It appears to be more 
common away from the Lake. 

1007. Laniarius leucorhynchus Sooty Boubou 1122 
Uncom., few, prob.res., no breeding records. Described in the literature 
as "plentiful in dense undergrowth" in Mabira. Also recorded at Kyetema, 
Kyetume and Sezibwa in the past. Recently it has been recorded in thick 
secondary forest and undergrowth at Bukasa (November) , Kifu (March, April, 
July) and Mabira (April) , also at Entebbe (unconfirmed) . 

Refs: van Someren (1916 & 1922); BNL 15,23,31,32; Britton (ed.) (1980); 
Hamel (1980) ; Pearson. 

1008. Laniarius luehderi luehderi Luhder's Bush Shrike 1127 
Recorded in the literature for Mabira, and Kifu (unconfirmed) . 

Refs: Britton (ed. ) (1980); Hamel (1980). 

1009. Laniarius mufumbiri Papyrus Gonolek 1120 
Uncom., few, prob.res., no breeding records. Dated records are for 
February, April, June and September. Confined to papyrus swamp, and 
recorded at Entebbe, Gaba, Kampala, Namulonge and Sezibwa, and is 

almost certainly under- re corded. Refs: van Someren (1922 & 1932); 
BNL 22,25; Pearson; pers.obs. 

1012. Malaconotus blanchoti catharoxanthus Grey-headed Bush Shrike 1144b 
Sc. , status uncertain. Stated in the literature to be not uncommon near 
Kampala, from where there is a specimen and a breeding record (September). 
More often associated with acacia country, but there are two recent 
records in April 1974 and 20 April 1981 when a single bird was seen and 
heard in the top of a tree in a Kampala garden. There are suggestions 
that it might be migratory. Refs: Stoneham (1928); Hopkins (1946); 

Nest Record; pers.obs. 

1013. Malaconotus bocagei jacksoni Grey-green Bush Shrike 1141 
F.com., few, prob.res., breeds, REM except January, February, June and 
August. Fairly widespread in open bush, cultivation and forest edge 
mostly, but not entirely, by the Lake-side. 

1019. Malaconotus sulfureopectus similis Sulphur-breasted Bush Shrike 1138 
V. com. -com., f .num. , prob.res., no breeding records, REM, but more 
records for January to April. Occurs in open bush with trees, forest 
patches and the outer gardens of Kampala. Usually singly or in pairs 
at the top of tall trees. 

1022. Tchagra australis emini Brown-headed Tchagra 1134b 

V. com. -com., f.num., prob.res., no breeding records, REM. More often 
heard than seen as it keeps well hidden low down, or on the ground, in 
thickets, undergrowth and hedges. 

1024. Tchagra minuta minuta Marsh Tchagra 1136a 
F.com., few, prob.res., no breeding records, dated records are for April, 
May, June, October and November. Seen occasionally in low, thick 
vegetation in damp places, among elephant grass and reeds at swamp edge. 

1025. Tchagra senegala senegala Black-headed Tchagra 1133a 
Uncom., few, no breeding records. Records for Entebbe (January, December), 
near Kampala (May), Kyetume and Lutembe (June). Found in thick bush, but 

59 



in drier habitat than minuta. Refs: van Someren (1922) ; BNL 34; Ash; 
Pearson. 

Family LANIIDAE Shrikes 

1029. Lanius collaris smithi which intergrades with humeralis Fiscal 1104a,b 
F.com., few, prob.res., no breeding records, REM. Widespread in open 
bush and cultivation. Unlike excubitorius is not found in central 
Kampala, but does occur in the outer suburbs. Usually seen singly or in 
pairs perching on branches, bushes or telegraph wires. 

1030. Lanius collurio collurio and kobylini Red-backed Shrike 1112 
Com., few, P.pass.mig. & occasional WV. There is an autumn passage in 
October and November. A few birds winter here, and there is a small 
spring passage, mostly of single birds in April. First date: 14 October; 
last date: 25 April. 

1032. Lanius excubitorius excubitorius Grey-backed Fiscal 1102a 

V.com., num., res., breeds, REM. Widespread in small parties even in 
central Kampala, also in bush and cultivation. Frequently perches on 
telegraph wires. 

1034. Lanius isabellinus phoenicuroides Red- tailed Shrike 1114b 
F.com., few, P.WV. Arrives in late November, and is present in small 
numbers until mid-April. Like collurio it inhabits open bush and 
cultivation. First date: 19 November; last date: 16 April. 

1035. Lanius mackinnoni Mackinnon's Shrike 1110 
Recorded in the literature for Entebbe, Kampala, Mabira and Mpumu (June) 
where it was described as "not at all common". Normally occurs in wood- 
land and forest edge. Refs: Seth-Smith (1913); van Someren (1916 & 1922); 
Allen & Fripp (1964) ; Hamel (1980) . 

1036. Lanius minor Lesser Grey Shrike 1103 
F.com., f. num. -few, P.pass.mig. Nearly all records are for April, with 
some in March and May. In autumn it is rare with few records for September, 
October and November. The main southward passage is to the west of Uganda. 
It is a noticeable bird usually seen singly, but occasionally in small 
numbers in open bush, gardens and cultivation. Ref: Dowsett (1971). 

1038. Lanius senator niloticus Woodchat Shrike 1115 

Sc. , few, P.WV. Recorded in the literature for Mabira. There are sight 
records at Kampala (3 December 1968) , Namulonge (10 March 1970 and 5 April 
1970) and Entebbe (almost daily in March 1983) . Its normal range is to 
the north of here. Refs: van Someren (1916); BNL 8; Ash; Frankum; pers.obs 

Family PRIONOPIDAE Helmet Shrikes 

1043. Prionops plumata concinnata Helmet Shrike 1091b 

Recorded in the literature for Kyagwe. Ref: van Someren (1922). 

Family STURNIDAE Starlings, Qxpeckers 

Sub- family Sturninae 

1048. Cinnyricinclus leucogaster verreauxi Violet-backed Starling 1184b 

F.com., num. -few, wan., no breeding records, REM. Most records are for 
November and January to March. Usually in parties, sometimes singly or 
in flocks of several hundred, feeding in tree-tops in forest and well- 
wooded areas . 



60 






1052. Creatophora cinerea Wattled Starling 1182 

Sc. , few, wan., no breeding records. Recorded at Entebbe (March, April, 
September, October, December) , Mabira and Namulonge (March, June) in open 
bush and cultivation, usually in small numbers. Ref s : BNL 7,9,10; Ash; 
Pearson. 

1056. Lamprotornis chloropterus chloropterus Lesser Blue-eared Glossy 

Starling 1190a 
Sc, few, wan., no breeding records. Recorded at Namulonge (July). 
Normally occurs in acacia woodland to the north of here. Seen in small 
parties in open woodland, and grassy areas with trees and bushes. Also 
often on roadsides. Ref s : van Someren (1922); BNL 11; Pearson. 

1058. Lamprotornis purpureiceps Purple-headed Glossy Starling 1193 
F.com. , few, prob.res. & wan., no breeding records. Dated records are 
for February, March, July and December. A forest starling usually seen 

in flocks in forest canopy, but also in open woodland and stands of tall 
trees in bush and cultivation. 

1059. Lamprotornis purpureus amethystinus Purple Glossy Starling 1191 
Uncom.-sc, few, wan., no breeding records. Recorded at Kikaya (April), 
Namulonge and Lutembe (April, November) . Normally occurs to the north 

of here. Seen in flocks in bush, open woodland, cultivation and thickets. 
Refs: BNL 7; Ash; pers.obs. 

1060. Lamprotornis purpuropterus Riippell's Long- tailed Glossy Starling 1196a 
V.com., num., res., breeds, REM. The commonest starling, ranging widely 
from central Kampala to light woodland and forest edge. There is some 
evidence that it has become more common in recent decades, van Someren 

(1922) and Jackson (1938) do not mention it for this area. 

1061. Lamprotornis splendidus splendidus Splendid Glossy Starling 1192 
V.com. -com., num., res., breeds, REM. Increases in numbers in October 
and November, and is plentiful until April when numbers decrease again. 
Usually in pairs or small flocks, in tall trees, woodland and forest 
edge. In the last ten years it has become commoner in central Kampala, 
and is adapting to urban living provided there are tall trees present. 

1063. Onychognathus fulgidus hartlaubii Chestnut- winged Starling 1200 

Sc. , few, prob.res., no breeding records. A forest starling recorded at 
Kifu (April) , Mabira, Mpanga (unconfirmed) and Mukono (July) . Usually 
in small parties in the tree tops. Refs: van Someren (1932); BNL 23,32; 
Britton (ed.) (1980); Hamel (1980); Pearson. 

Sub- family Buphaginae 

1077. Buphagus africanus africanus Yellow-billed Oxpecker 1217 
Sc. , wan., no breeding records. Recorded at Kaazi (January) and Kampala 
City abbatoirs (December) . Usually in small flocks among local cattle, 
but occasionally single birds are seen among groups of B. erythrorhynchus . 
Refs : BNL 5 ; pers . obs . 

1078. Buphagus erythrorhynchus Red-billed Oxpecker 1218 
Uncom.-sc, few, perhaps .res. , breeds. Recorded at Entebbe (March, 
September) , Kaazi (January, August, September, December) , Kampala 
(October) , Kyagwe and Kyetema. Always in association with cattle and 

in small flocks. Refs: van Someren (1916); Allen & Fripp (1964); 
BNL 4,5,17,25,36; Zoology Museum; Nest Record; Pearson; pers.obs. 



61 



Family NECTARINIIDAE Sunbirds 

1060. Ar.zhreptes coliaris jargnensis Cellared Sunbird 1271d 

Com., num. , res., breeds, REM. Perhaps subject cc local movements as in 
scne years, especially during February - and March numbers increase erratic- 
ally. Widespread in gardens, open woodland and bush, especially in 
flowering trees and shrubs. 

1061. AntJtreptes fraseri axillaris Grey-headed Sunbird 1280 
On com. , few, prob.res., no breeding records. A forest sunbird recorded 
from undergrowth in Kifu ( January-, March, May, July, August), Kyetema, 
Mabira, Mukono (July' and Sezibwa. May be -under-recorded. 

Refs: van Scmeren (1916 i 1 922^ ; 3NL 23,29,31,33,36; Hamel (1980). 

1082. Anthrepzes iong-jenarei icr.g~serzarei Violet-backed Sunbird 1274a 

So., few, wan., no breeding records, recorded in the past in bush and fores- 
edge at Kyagwe, Kyetume and Mabira. There is one recent sight record for 
outer Kampala (December! . Refs: van Scmeren (1916 i 1922!; 3N1 1c. 

108". Snthreptes reczircszris zephrolaena Green Sunbird 1272 

Sc, few, no breeding records. Another little recorded forest sunbird 
of 'uncertain status. Found in forest, canopy at Entebbe, Kifu, Mabira 
(April;, Mpumu and in the past in Kampala. Refs: Seth-Smith (1913); 
van Someren (1916 S 1 922 % ; Williams (196" ; BNL 32; Hamel (1980). 

1092. Nectarinia bifasciaza zicrorhyncha Little Purple-banded Sunbird 1241 
This species is included en the strength of owe specimens in the Zoology 
Museum, one from Kaazi (November 15 "4" and the other from Kampala (August 
1974). Refs: Allen & Fripp ,1964); Zoology Museum. 

1093. Nectarinia bouvieii Orange-tufted Sunbird 1247 
Sc. , few, no breeding records. Recorded in the literature as "plentiful 
in Entebbe Botanic Gardens in July, August and September". Recent records 
are for open bush at Kataiemwa (December tc April' , Kifu (March) and Mabira. 
Refs: van Someren (1S22 V ; Friedmann (1966); Williams (1967); BNL 31; 
Hamel [1980] ; Pearson. 

1094. Nectarinia chlaropggia orphegaster Clive-bellied Sunbird 1257a 
Com., few, res., breeds, REM. Widespread in gardens, secondary fcrest, 
forest edge and tall bush. 

1096. Nectar inia cuprea cuprea Copper Sunbird 1238 

Con., few, res., breeds, REM. Occurs in small numbers from Kampala 
gardens to the Lake shore. Often in flowering Ergthrina. 

1097. Nectarinia cganolaema octaviae Blue-throated Brown Sunbird 1268 
Dncaa., few, prob.res., breeds. Recorded in forest tree tops and 
clearings at Entebbe (April, September', Kifu, Mabira (August), Mpumu 

September' , Mukono (July' and Zi(<a. Refs: Seth-Smith ,1913'; 
van Someren (1916 i 1922'; Williams (1967)? Okia [1976); BNL 23; Hamel 
[198C - 

1098. Nectarinia eruthroceria Red-chested Sunbird 1232 
V.com., nam., res., breeds, REM. All records are near water, and most 

by the Lake. Within the last two years there have been records near 
swimming pools in central Kampala gardens. Tr.e commonest sunbird of 
Lake-side vegetation. 

1103. Nectarinia kilimensis kilir.ensis Bronze Sunbird 1230a 

Com., few, res., breeds, REM. May be local migrant as nest records are 

for December to April. Local, frequents gardens, open bush especially 
among flowering shrubs and trees. 



62 






1107. Nectarinia mariquensis suahelica Mariqua Sunbird 1245a 

Com. , few, res., breeds, REM. Locally common, but its appearance is 
erratic. Favours gardens with flowering shrubs, and open bush with 
scattered trees. 

1112. Nectarinia olivacea ragazzii Olive Sunbird 1269i 

F.com., few, res., breeds, REM except August and November. Occurs in 
forests and forest patches from tree tops to undergrowth. 

1119. Nectarinia reichenowi reichenowi Golden-winged Sunbird 1235 
Recorded in the literature at Entebbe, Kyagwe and Kyetema. 

Refs: Sharpe (1902); van Someren (1916 & 1922). 

1120. Nectarinia rubescens rubescens Green-throated Sunbird 1262a 
Uncom. , few, status uncertain, perhaps res. or wan., breeds. Recorded 

in forest and forest edge and areas of tall trees, including gardens at 
Entebbe (August to November), Kaazi, Kampala (October), Kifu, Kisubi, 
Kyagwe (June) , Lutembe (April) , Mabira and Mukono (March) . 
Refs: van Someren (1916 & 1922); Allen & Fripp (1964); Williams (1967); 
BNL 20; Hamel (1980); Nest Record; Ash; Pearson; pers.obs. 

1121. Nectarinia seimundi traylori Little Green Sunbird 1277 
Sc, few, no breeding records. Recorded in the literature at Entebbe 

(March) and Sezibwa (December) . There are recent sight records at Kifu 
(January). Perhaps overlooked. Inhabits forest clearings, forest edge 
and overgrown cultivation. Refs: van Someren (1949); BNL 9; Hamel (1980). 

1122. Nectarinia senegalensis lamperti Scarlet-chested Sunbird 1263d 
V.com., num., res., breeds, REM. Probably the commonest sunbird; wide- 
spread in a variety of habitats from central Kampala parks and gardens 

to open woodland and forest edge. 

1125. Nectarinia superba buvuma Superb Sunbird 1237 

F. com. -uncom. , few, prob.res., breeds. Recorded at Bukasa (February, 
March), Entebbe (March, April, May, July), Kaazi (February, November), 
Kibanga Port (March), Kifu, Kyagwe, Lutembe (April, September, November), 
Mabira (September) and Mpumu. Seen in bush, forest and forest patches. 
Refs: Seth-Smith (1913); van Someren (1916, 1922 & 1932); Williams (1967); 
BNL 3,6,7,19; Hamel (1980); Nest Record; Ash; Pearson; pers.obs. 

1128. Nectarinia venusta igneiventris Variable Sunbird 125 Id 

V.com., num., res., breeds, REM. This with N. senegalensis is the common 
sunbird of Kampala gardens. Widespread in bush, woodland and secondary 
growth 

1130. Nectarinia verticalis viridisplendens Green-headed Sunbird 1266 

F.com., f.num., res., breeds, REM. Found in gardens and increasingly 
in central Kampala, thick bush, forest edge and Lake-side vegetation. 
Unobtrusive and keeps in thick cover. 

Family ZOSTEROPIDAE White-eyes 

1133. Zosterops senegalensis stuhlmanni Yellow White-eye 1221a 

V.com. -com., num. , res., breeds, REM. Widespread from central Kampala 
to the Lake shore. Often in small parties in bush, woodland and flowering 
shrubs. 



63 



Family PLOCEIDAE Weavers etc. 
Sub-family Ploceinae 

1134. Awblyospiza albifrons melanota Grosbeak Weaver 1358b 
Com.-f.com., few, res. & wan., breeds, REM. Local, usually in damp Lake- 
side vegetation and swamps. Also wanders to patches of woodland and 
thick bush. 

1135. Anaplectes rubriceps leuconotus Red-headed Weaver* 1359 
Recorded in the literature for Entebbe. There are two sight records for 
near Kampala on 7 November 1970 and 9 May 1971. It normally occurs in 
drier areas, and its presence requires confirmation. Refs: Williams 
(1967) ; BNL 19,22. 

1139. Euplectes ardens concolor and tropicus Red-collared Widowbird 1375a,b 
Sc. , few, status uncertain, breeds. Apparently used to be very common 

in areas of long, damp grass, especially elephant grass. It seems to 
have got gradually more scarce over the last few decades, with no records 
for nearly ten years. Both races were present on the same ground and 
occasional intergrades occurred. Recorded at Entebbe, Kajansi (October) , 
Kampala, Kikaya (March, June, August), Kisubi, Kyetema and Mpumu. 
Refs: Jackson (1899); Seth-Smith (1913); van Someren (1916 & 1922); 
BNL 1,2,12,31; pers.obs. 

1140. Euplectes axillaris phoeniceus Fan-tailed Widowbird 1370b 
V.com., ab.-num., res., breeds, REM. Widespread in swampy areas of open 
bush, long grass and elephant grass from Kampala to Lake-side swamp. 
Perhaps subject to local movements as sometimes absent from its usual 
haunts. 

1144. Euplectes gierowii ansorgei Black Bishop 1366b 
F.com., f. num. -few, res. & perhaps wan., breeds, REM. Males in breeding 
dress are seen mostly from January to June, but occasionally in November. 
Local, almost always seen in elephant grass, but sometimes in cultivation, 
even near the middle of Kampala. Is sometimes apparently absent. 

1145. Euplectes hartlaubi humeralis Marsh Widowbird 1374b 
Sc. , few, perhaps res., breeds. Old records indicate that it used to be 
commoner in the past, and was recorded at Entebbe (May to August) , Kampala, 
Kyetema and Port Bell. Recent records are scanty, and for Entebbe and 
Kibanga Port (26 September 1970, 11 May 1971) , in long grass and swamp 
edge. Refs: van Someren (1916); BNL 13,21; Nest Record; Pearson, Pitman. 

1148. Euplectes macrourus macrourus Yellow-mantled Widowbird 1371,1372a 

Sc, no breeding records. The yellow-mantled form is recorded in the 
literature for Kampala, and the yellow-shouldered form at Namulonge in 
June and October 1970. Occurs in swampy grass and marshland. 
Refs: Ansorge (1899); BNL 9,10,15. 

1155. Malimbus rubricollis rubricollis Red-headed Malimbe 1356 

F.com., few, prob.res., breeds. Dated records are for January, April, 
May, July to September. Usually in small parties feeding high in the 
canopy in forest trees. 

1158. Ploceus aurantius rex Orange Weaver 1334 

Com., num., prob.res. & wan., breeds, REM except August. Confined to 
swamps, Lake-side vegetation and papyrus. Sometimes missing from their 
usual haunts. 



64 



1159. Ploceus baglafecht stuhlmanni Stuhlmann's Weaver 1349a 

V.com., f.num., res., breeds, REM. The commonest weaver in central 
Kampala. Also widespread in cultivation, bush and forest patches. 
Usually seen singly or in pairs, sometimes in small groups. 

1164. Ploceus castanops Northern Brown- throated Weaver 1330 
Com., f .num. , res., breeds, REM. Most records are for the Lake shore, 
and the off-shore islands, but occasionally also in gardens and woodland. 

1165. Ploceus cucullatus bohndorffi Black-headed Weaver 1312b 
V.com., ab.-num., res., breeds, REM. Occurs throughout in cultivation, 
bushed and wooded grassland and gardens. Most nesting colonies are near 
human habitation. 

1171. Ploceus jacksoni Golden-backed Weaver 1326 

Com., f.num., res., breeds, REM. Rather local, and associated with 
elephant grass and long grass from Kampala outskirts to the Lake shore. 
In pairs or small flocks, and does not form the large flocks described 
elsewhere. 

1173. Ploceus melanocephalus fischeri Yellow-backed Weaver 1325a 
V.com., ab.-num., res., breeds, REM. By the Lake shore this is the most 
numerous weaver. Also widespread in other damp places with long grass 

and elephant grass, and in open bush. Often in large flocks, but. also 
singly or in pairs and small numbers. 

1174. Ploceus melanogaster stephanophorus Black-billed Weaver 1346 
Recorded in the literature for Mabira. Ref : Hamel (1980) . 

1175. Ploceus nigerrimus nigerrimus Vieillot's Black Weaver 1344 
Com., ab.-num., res., breeds, REM. Widespread around human habitation, 
bush and cultivation from Kampala suburbs to the Lake shore, often breeds 
in association with P. cucullatus. 

1176. Ploceus nigricollis nigricollis Black-necked Weaver 1336a 
F.com., few, prob.res., breeds, REM, except February. Found singly or 

in pairs in wooded gardens, patches of open forest and bush. Usually 
keeps well hidden in the foliage of bushes and medium-sized trees. 

1177. Ploceus ocularis crocatus Spectacled Weaver 1337a 
Com., few, res., breeds, REM. Secretive, seen singly or in pairs in 
trees and forest patches. 

1179. Ploceus pelzelni pelzelni Slender-billed Weaver 1343 

V.com., num., res., breeds, REM. Nearly all records are from the Lake 
shore, and it is confined to the vicinity of water. Forages both in tall 
trees and low down in Lake-side vegetation, singly or in small numbers. 

1184. Ploceus superciliosus Compact Weaver 1350 

F.com.-uncom. , few, prob.res., breeds, REM except August. Occurs locally 
mostly by the Lake shore in thickets and scattered bushes , singly or in 
small numbers. 

1186. Ploceus tricolor interscapular is Yellow-mantled Weaver 1353 

Uncom., few, prob.res., breeds. A forest weaver recorded at Bukasa (July), 
Kifu (July), Kyetema, Kyetume (June), Lubowa (October), Mabira, Mpanga 
(March) and Mpumu. Usually seen in high forest trees. Refs: Seth-Smith 
(1913); van Someren (1916 & 1922); BNL 3,14,20,23; Hamel (1980); Nest 
Record; Pearson. 



65 



1188. Ploceus weynsi Weyns' Weaver 1345 
V. com. -com., f .num. -num. , perhaps loc.mig. or wan., no breeding records 

(nest undescribed) , REM. Described in the literature as a forest weaver, 
and with dated records at Mpumu in July and August. Recent records are 
very local and predominately from the Lake shore at Entebbe, Gaba and 
Kibanga Port where large noisy flocks of up to 200 birds are recorded. 
The largest flocks are present in September when females and young birds 
predominate. In March and April many males in fresh plumage are seen in 
the flocks. The birds are apparently absent from the Lake shore between 
June and early September. Birds are known to be in breeding condition in 
July, and there is perhaps a movement from the Lake shore to the forest 
in June, associated with breeding. 

1189. Ploceus xanthops Holub's Golden Weaver 1342 
Uncom., few, prob.res., breeds, dated records are for January to May, 
July and October to December. Usually in pairs or small groups in 
elephant grass and overgrown cultivation, not always near water. 
Recorded at Entebbe, Gaba, Kampala, Kibanga Port, Kikaya, Lutembe, 

Mpumu and Namulonge. Refs: Seth-Smith (1913); BNL 19,26,27,29,31,44; 
Nest Record; Pearson; pers.obs. 

1191. Quelea cardinalis cardinalis Cardinal Quelea 1362 
F.com., f.num., no breeding records. Males in breeding plumage have been 
recorded from December to May in flocks in tall grass both inland and by 
the Lake shore. 

1192. Quelea erythrops Red-headed Quelea 1361 
F.com., f.riura., no breeding records. Males in breeding plumage are seen 
between November and June. Occurs in much the same habitat as cardinalis 
and also in small flocks. 

1193. Quelea quelea aethiopica Red-billed Quelea 1360 
There are recent sight records at Entebbe for small numbers up to 10 in 
September and October 1983. Ref : Ash. 

Sub-family Passerinae 

1206. Passer griseus griseus Grey-headed Sparrow 1300 

V.com., num., res., breeds, REM. An adaptable and widespread species 
found round human habitation from central Kampala to the Lake shore; 
also in a variety of bushed and wooded habitats. 

Sub-family Viduinae 

1211. Hypochera chalybeata centralis Red-billed Firefinch Indigobird 1435 
Uncom., few, status uncertain, no breeding records. Most dated records 
are for January and March, with one in April, one in May and one in 
October. Occurs in cultivation, rank vegetation and around houses at 
Entebbe, Kampala, Kisubi, Mabira, Mpumu and Namulonge. Refs: van Someren 
(1916 & 1922); BNL 6,7,29,31; Ash; Frankum; pers.obs. 

1216. Vidua macroura Pin-tailed Whydah 1441 

Com., f.num-few, prob.res., no breeding records, REM. Widespread in 
long grass, open bush, cultivation and occasionally gardens. 



66 



Family ESTRILDIDAE Waxbills etc. 

Sub-family Estrildinae 

1219. Amandava sub f lava sub f lava Zebra Waxbill 1421a 

Sc., few, wan., status uncertain, no breeding records. Recorded in the 
literature for Entebbe, Kampala and Kyetema. One recent sight record 
at Namulonge (26 January 1972). Frequents long, damp grass, rank cultiv- 
ation and swamp edge, usually in small parties. Refs: van Someren (1916); 
BNL 29 T 

1221. Clytospiza monteiri Brown Twinspot* 1389 

Com., few, prob.res., no breeding records, REM except February and June. 
Usually found in pairs low down in thickets and tangled vegetation in 
scattered bush and forest patches from suburban Kampala to the Lake shore. 

1226. Estrilda astrild peasei Waxbill 1418c, d 

Com., f.num., res., breeds, REM. Usually seen in small flocks in 
cultivation, long grass and bush, often in damp areas. Sometimes in 
mixed flocks with related species . 

1230. Estrilda nonnula nonnula Black-crowned Waxbill 1425 
Com., f.num., res., breeds, REM. Fairly widespread in small flocks in 
central Kampala parks and gardens, as well as in open bush and cultivation. 
Usually keeps low in hedges, bushes and thickets. 

1231. Estrilda paludicola paludicola Fawn-breasted Waxbill 1422a 
Com., f.num., prob.res. breeds REM except February, August, October and 
November. Usually in small flocks, but in December and January bigger 
flocks are seen. Occurs in damp and swampy grassland, open bush and 
cultivation, often with E. astrild. Most records are from near the Lake. 

1233. Estrilda rhodopyga centralis Crimson-rumped Waxbill 1420b 

Sc, few, status uncertain, breeds. In 1973 and 1974 it was present in 
rank cultivation in. outer Kampala, where it attempted to breed during 
September 1973, and young birds were observed in June 1974. Since then 
records at Entebbe and Kampala have been more spasmodic (February, April, 
October, November). Apparently very local, but may be overlooked among 
other waxbills. Refs: BNL 48; Ash; pers.obs. 

1239. Lagonosticta rubricata congica African Firefinch 1411b 

Recorded occasionally both in the past and more recently at Entebbe, 
Kampala, Mpumu, Mukono and Zika. Because of the possibility of confusion 
with the next species its presence requires confirmation. Refs: Ogilvie- 
Grant (1910); Seth-Smith (1913); Allen & Fripp (1964); Okia (1976); BNL 13. 

1241. Lagonosticta senegala ruberrima Red-billed Firefinch 1413d 
V.com., f.num., res., breeds, REM. Widespread in towns, including central 
Kampala, villages and open bush. Usually in pairs in dry areas, short 
grass and bare ground. 

1242. Mandingoa nitidula schlegeli Green-backed Twinspot 1407b 
Uncom., few, prob.res., no breeding records. Occurs in forest under- 
growth at Entebbe, Kifu (January, May, July, September, October), Mabira 
(April) and Zika. May be under recorded. Refs: van Someren (1932); 

Okia (1976); BNL 25,26,29,32; Hamel (1980); Zoology Museum. 

1243. Nesocharis ansorgei ansorgei White-collared Olive-back 1429 
Uncom., few, prob.res. & breeds. Dated records are for February, April, 
May, September, November and December at Gaba in Lake-side bush, thickets, 
tangled swampy vegetation and long grass. Usually in pairs or small 
numbers. Refs: Pearson; pers.obs. 



67 



1246. Nigrita canicapilla schistacea Grey-headed Negrofinch 1386b 
V.com., f .num. , res., breeds, REM. Widespread singly or in pairs usually 
in medium-sized trees in wooded gardens, open woodland, forest patches 

and forest edge. 

1247. Nigrita fusconota fusconota White-breasted Negrofinch 1388 
Uncom. , few, prob.res., breeds. Much less common than the previous 
species, and more of a forest bird. Recorded at Busi, Entebbe, Kibanga 
Port (May) , Kifu (January, March, July) , Mabira, Mpumu (August, September) 
and Sezibwa. Refs: Seth-Smith (1913); van Someren (1916 & 1922); BNL 21, 
23,29,31; Pearson. 

1249. Ortygospiza atricollis atricollis Quailfinch 1403a 
Recorded in the literature at Entebbe. Ref: van Someren (1922). 

1250. Ortygospiza gabonensis dorsostriata Black-chinned Quailfinch 1403d 
Recorded in the literature at Entebbe and Mpumu. Ref: Jackson (1938) . 

1254. Pyrenestes ostrinus ostrinus Black-bellied Seed-cracker 1393-1395 
F.com., few, prob.res., breeds. Dated records are for March April and 
June to October. Appears to be more common than the next species, or at 
least observed more often as it occasionally comes out into the open. 
Normally an inhabitant of dense bush and forest. 

1259. Spermophaga ruficapilla ruficapilla Red-headed Bluebill 1391a 

Uncom., few, prob.res., breeds. A little recorded and secretive species 
which occurs in dense forest undergrowth in Kifu (April) , Kyetume (May) , 
Mabira (April), Mpumu (October) and Zika. Refs: Seth-Smith (1911 & 1913) ; 
van Someren (1916); Okia (1976); BNL 32; Hamel (1980); Nest Record. 

1261. Uraeginthus bengalus bengalus Red-cheeked Cordon-bleu 1431b 

Uncom., few, prob.res., breeds. Frequents scattered bush, cultivation 
and long grass, and is sometimes associated with human habitation, 
including the outskirts of Kampala (July, September, December). Also 
recorded at Entebbe (April) , Gaba, Kyetema, Lutembe and Namulonge (Nov- 
ember) . Usually in pairs or small flocks. Refs: van Someren (1916 & 
1922); Allen & Fripp (1964); Zoology Museum; Frankum; Halstead; Pearson; 
pers.obs. 

Sub-family Amadinae 

1265. Lonchura bicolor poensis Black and White Mannikin 1380 
V.com., num., res., breeds, REM. Widespread, but seems to require the 
presence of forest patches, or many trees. In suitable habitat is often 
in mixed flocks with L. cucullata 

1266. Lonchura cucullata cucullata Bronze Mannikin 1379* 
V.com., ab., res., breeds, REM. Widespread from central Kampala to Lake- 
side bush in areas of tall seeding grass. 

Family FRINGILLIDAE Buntings, Canaries, Seed-eaters 

Sub-family Emberizinae 

1278. Emberiza tahapisi tahapisi Cinnamon-breasted Rock Bunting 1476c 

Two sight records, one of a pair at Lutembe among grass and the concrete 
and rubble of destroyed buildings on 31 October 1982, and another at 
Entebbe on 8 December 1983. Refs: Ash; Sheldon; pers.obs. 



68 



Sub- family Carduelinae 

1280. Serinus atrogularis somereni Yellow-rumped Seed-eater 1459c 

Recorded in the literature at Entebbe and Kampala. Ref : van Someren 
(1922). 

1283. Serinus citrinelloides frontalis African Citril 1464c 

F.com., f .num. , res., breeds, REM. Widespread in cultivation and open 
bush, rather local. Usually in small flocks in seeding shrubs and flowers. 

1287. Serinus koliensis Papyrus Canary 1451b 

Sc. , few, no breeding records, may be under-recorded. Seen in or near 
papyrus swamps and recorded at Gaba (April) and Entebbe (July, September) . 
Refs: Ash; Forbes-Watson; Pitman. 

1290. Serinus mozambicus barbatus Yellow- fronted Canary 1448b 

Com., f .num. , res., breeds, REM. Widespread in gardens, bush and cultiv- 
ation. Is common on the outskirts of Kampala, but rarely seen in central 
areas. Usually in pairs, or small numbers. 

1293. Serinus sulphuratus sharpii Brimstone Canary 1450 

Com., f.num., res., breeds, REM. Widespread in gardens, bush and 
cultivation, also present in central Kampala. Usually in pairs. 



APPENDIX A 

The following species are recorded in the literature for this area, but, in the 
absence of supporting detail, the records are unacceptable. 



86. Gyps rueppellii Ruppell's Vulture BNL 15 

148. Falco biarmicus Lanner Falcon Allen & Fripp (1964) 

243. Vanellus armatus Blacksmith Plover BNL 3 

463. Apaloderma vittatum Bar-tailed Trogon Ogilvie-Grant (1910) 

544. Lybius rolleti Black-breasted Barbet Allen & Fripp (1964) 

580. Campethera cailliautii Little Spotted Woodpecker Hamel (1980) 

584. Campethera tullbergi Fine-banded Woodpecker BNL 27; Hamel (1980) 

593. Picoides obsoletus Brown-backed Woodpecker Allen & Fripp (1964) 

594. Thripias namaquus Bearded Woodpecker BNL 3 
655. Corvus capensis Cape Rook Stoneham (1928) 

Phyllastrephus fulviventris Pale Olive Greenbul Hamel (1980) 

768. Monticola rufocinerea Little Rock Thrush BNL 28 

782 Pogonocichla stellata White-starred Forest Robin Sharpe (1902) 

842. Chloropeta gracilirostris Papyrus Yellow Warbler Jackson (1938) . 

This species could possibly occur here. 

846. Cisticola aberrans Rock-loving Cisticola Jackson (1901) This is 

probably C. woosnami. 

879. Eremomela pusilla Green-backed Eremomela BNL 15 

909. Phylloscopus umbrovirens Brown Woodland Warbler BNL 33 

927. Bradornis microrhynchus Grey Flycatcher Allen & Fripp (1964) 

969. Trochocercus albiventris White-bellied Crested Flycatcher 

Nest record, probably T. nigromitratus . 

986. Macronyx ameliae Rosy-breasted Longclaw Allen & Fripp (1964) 

999. Dryoscopus cubla Black-backed Puffback BNL 35,41 

1116. Nectarinia pulchella Beautiful Sunbird Allen & Fripp (1964) 

1146. Euplectes hordeaceus Black-winged Red Bishop Williams (1967) 



69 



1169. Ploceus insignis Brown-capped Weaver Williams (1967); Hamel (1980) 

1172. Ploceus luteolus Little Weaver van Someren (1922) 

1267. Lonchura fringilloides Magpie Mannikin Allen & Fripp (1964) 

1273. Emberiza flaviventris Golden-breasted Bunting Seth-Smith (1913) 



APPENDIX B 

Additions and corrections up to June 1984 

39. Gorsachius leuconotus White-backed Night Heron 

At Entebbe it was described as "seen not infrequently". Three adults 
and a juvenile were recorded on 31 July 1950. There have been no 
records since then. Refs: Anon (1950); Eggling (1951a). 

45 . Ciconia ciconia White Stork 

A bird ringed in Poland on 9 June 1937 was recovered in Kyadondo (00°28'N 
32°30'E) on 17 January 1945. Ref: Eggling (1951b). 

115. Aquila pomarina Lesser Spotted Eagle 

There is a further sight record of 2 or 3 birds at Entebbe on 9 October 
1983. Ref: Ash. 

131. Melierax gabar Gabar Goshawk 

There is now a record for April. Ref: pers.ob. 

241. Pluvialis squatarola Grey Plover 

There is a further sight record of a single bird at Entebbe on 24 July 
1983. Ref: Ash. 

248. Vanellus Senegal lus Wattled Plover 

There is now a record for February. Ref: Ash. 

278. Limosa limosa Black-tailed Godwit 

There is a further sight record at Entebbe on 5 January 1984. 
Ref : Ash . 

412. Bubo africanus Spotted Eagle Owl 

In 1983 and 1984 this bird was seen fairly regularly near the main 
Post Office in central Kampala. Refs: Volrath; pers.obs. 

427. Caprimulgus clarus Slender- tailed Nightjar 

There are further sight records at Entebbe (July) and Lutembe (June and 
September). Ref: Ash. 

534. Lybius bidentatus Double-toothed Barbet 
See No. 566. 

535. Lybius diadematus Red- fronted Barbet 

Also recorded in the literature at Kyetume. Ref: van Someren (1922). 

566. Indicator minor Lesser Honeyguide 

There is now a sight record at Entebbe for July (Ash) . There is also 
an almost certain breeding record at Kaazi on 24 February 1964. 
Ref: Colebrook-Robjent, J.F.R. 1984. A nest of the Double- toothed 
Barbet Lybius bidentatus parasitised by a honeyguide in Uganda. 
Bulletin of the British Ornithologists Club 104: 123. 



70 



601. Calandrella cinerea Red-capped Lark 

There are further sight records at Entebbe on 3 March 1983, 27 December 
1983 and 6 January 1984. Ref : Ash. 

623. Delichon urbica House Martin 

There is a sight record of a hybrid Delichon urbica/Hirundo rustica at 
Entebbe. Ref: Ash. 

634. Hirundo rustica Eurasian Swallow 

See No. 623. A bird ringed at Gaba on 30 October 1977 was recovered in 
Turkey (41°17'N 41°07'E) in 1979. Ref: Backhurst, G.C. 1981. 
East African Bird Ringing Report 1977-1981. Journal of the East Africa 
Natural History Society and National Museum. 174: 1-19. 

643. Riparia riparia Sand Martin 

A bird ringed at Entebbe on 16 April 1967 was recovered in the USSR 
(52°26'N 53°11'E) on 20 June 1969. Ref: Backhurst, G.C. 1970. 
Bird Ringing Report 1968-1969. Journal of the East Africa Natural 
History Society. 28(119): 16-26. 

967. Terpsiphone rufiventer Red-bellied Paradise Flycatcher 

Ref: Carswell, M.J. 1984. Example of apparent hybridisation between 
Terpsiphone rufiventer and Terpsiphone viridis. Scopus 8: 98-99. 

968. Terpisophone viridis Paradise Flycatcher 
See No. 967. 

1135. Anaplectes rubriceps Red-headed Weaver 

There are sight records at Kampala in December 1982, April - June 1983, 
December 1983, January 1984 and May - June 1984. These records confirm 
its presence in this area. Refs: Pomeroy; pers.obs. 

1221. Clytospiza monteiri Brown Twinspot 

There is now a record for June. Ref: pers.obs. 

Species new to the area 

151. Falco concolor Sooty Falcon 

There is a sight record of a single bird at Entebbe on 14 April 1983. 
Ref: Ash. 

260. Tringa totanus Redshank 

There is a sight record of a single bird at Kakindu on 12 March 1983. 
Ref: Sheldon. 

347. Streptopelia decipiens Mourning Dove 

There is a sight record of a single bird in Kampala from 14 to 27 May 
1984, and three birds present on 3 June 1984. Ref: pers.obs. 

695. Coracina pectoralis White-breasted Cuckoo Shrike 

There is a sight record at Lutembe on 25 April 1983. Ref: Ash. 



71 



GAZETTEER 



Ba'hai = Kikaya 

Buddu 

Bukasa 

Busi Island = Bussi 

Buziranjovu Island 

Chagwe = Kyagwe 

Damba Island 

Dewe 



Entebbe 



implies Entebbe peninsula not 
just the township 



Gaba 

Gayaza 

Kaazi 

Kabanyolo 

Kajansi 

Kakindu Swamp 

Kampala 

Kanyamusanga Swamp 

Kasaala Forest 

Kasanje 

Katalemwa 

Kibanga Port 

Kifu Forest 

Kikaya 

Kisi 

Kisubi 

Kiteezi 

Kituza 

Kyagwe 

Kyetema 

on Murchison Bay, but can 
no longer be traced 

Kyetume 

Kyoga , Lake 

Luala, Luwala, Luwele Lwala 

Lubowa 

Lutembe 



Appr ox ima te ly 



00°22»N 
00°25'S 
00°18'N 
00°02'N 
00°17'N 
00 o 22'N 
00°00'S 
00°10'N 
00°04 , N 

00°15'N 
00°27'N 
00°13'N 
00°28'N 
00°13'N 
00°09'N 
00 o 19*N. 
00°03'N 
00°16'N 
00°09»N, 
00°23'N 
00°12'N 
00°25»N 
00°22 , N 
00°04'N 
00°06'N 
00°25'N 
00°16'N 
00°22*N 
00°13 , N 



00°19'N 
01°30'N 
Mabira Forest 00°29'N 
00 o 15"N 
00°10'N 



32°35'E 
31°40'E 
32°40 , E 
32°22'E 
32°44 , E 
32 55'E 
32°45'E 
32°34'E 
32°28'E 

32°38'E 
32°37'E 
32°37'E 
32°37'E 
32°32'E 
32°34'E 
32°3o , E 
32 26'E 
32°48'E 
32°24'E 
32°35 , E 
32°52'E 
32°44'E 
32°35'E 
32°32'E 
32°34'E 
32°33'E 
32°47»E 
32°55 , E 
32 <> 43 , E 

32°46'E 
33°00'E 
32°59 , E 
32°34'E 
32°35'E 



72 



Mabamba Swamp 00°04'N, 32°20'E 

Mabira Forest - includes adjacent 00°29'N, 32°59'E 
non-forest areas. 

Masaka 00°20'S / 31°44'E 

Mayinja Island 00°09'N, 32°36*E 

Mpanga Forest 00°13 , N, 32°18'E 

Mpigi = Mpanga Forest 00°13'N, 32°18'E 

Mpumu 00°14'N, 32°49'E 

Mubango = Mabira Forest 00°29'N, 32°59'E 

Mukono 00°22'N, 32°45'E 

Murchison Bay 00 o 16'N, 32°39'E 

Muzima Point (islets) 00 o 02'N, 32°29'E 

Nakawa 00°20'N, 32°37'E 

Nakibega 00°14'N, 32°41 , E 

Namanve Forest 00°21'N, 32°42'E 

Namware, Narawave = Namanve Forest 00°21'N, 32°42'E 

Namiro Swamp 00°04'N, 32 27'E 

Namulonge 00°32'N, 32°37'E 

Nazigo = Mukono 00°22'N, 32°45'E 

Nkokonjeru 00°14'N / 32°55'E 

Port Bell 00°17'N, 32°39'E 

Sezibwa River 00*21^, 32°52'E 

Waiya Bay 00 o 05'N f 32°26'E 

Zika Forest 00°08'N, 32°31'E 

Gazetteer of Uganda 1971. Department of Lands and Surveys : Entebbe. 



REFERENCES 



GROUP A - Works cited : 



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Uganda Journal 28: 55-60. 

Anon. 1937. Uganda Game and Fisheries Department, Annual Report. 
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Anon. 1950. Uganda Game and Fisheries Department, Annual Report. 
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Anon. 1971. Uganda National Parks Handbook. 5th edition. 
London : Longmans , Green & Co . 



73 



Ansorge, W.J. 1899. Under the African sun. Appendix by E. Hartert. 
London : Hei nemann . 

Bird Newsletter (BNL) A numbered newsheet produced by the Uganda Society 
between 1969 and 1977. Kampala. 

Burke, V.E.M. 1969. The African Pitta. Journal of the East Africa Natural 
History Society and National Museum 27: 233-234. 

Carswell, M.J. 1971. The Black-tailed Godwit Limosa limosa in Uganda. 
Scopus 1 : 49 . 

Dowsett, R.J. 1971. The Lesser Grey Shrike Lanius minor in Africa. 
Ostrich 42: 259-270. 

Eggling, W.G. 1951a. Ringing Palaearctic waders, and other birds on 
Lake Victoria. Ibis 92: 312-313. 



1951b. Ringed Birds recovered in Uganda. Uganda Journal 



15(1): 17-25. 

Frankum, R. 1972a. Letter to the Editor. EANHS Bulletin 1972: 81-82. 

1972b. Letter to the Editor. EANHS Bulletin 1972: 112. 

1972c. Letter to the Editor. EANHS Bulletin 1972: 206-207. 

Friedmann, H. 1966. A contribution to the ornithology of Uganda. 

Bulletin of the Los Angeles County Museum of Natural History Science 3: 1-55. 



& Loveridge, A. 1937. Notes on the ornithology of tropical 



East Africa. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard 
81: 1-413. 



& Williams, J.G. 1969. The birds of Sango Bay forests, Buddu 

County, Masaka District, Uganda. Contributions in Science, Los Angeles 
162: 1-48. 

Goodman, J. & Pomeroy, D.E. 1984. White-faced Scops Owl Otus leucotis 

breeding at Makerere, Uganda. Scopus 8: 27 
Hale-Carpenter, G.D. 1920. A naturalist on Lake Victoria. 

London: T. Fisher & Unwin Ltd. 
Hamel, P. 1980. The avifauna of the Kifu and Mabira Forests, Uganda. 

Proceedings of the Fourth Pan-African Ornithological Congress: 135-145. 

South African Ornithological Society. 
Hartert, E. 1899. Appendix in Ansorge's Under the African sun. q.v. 

Hopkins, G.H.E. 1946. Some recent Uganda bird records. Journal of the 

East Africa Natural History Society 19: 103-106. 
Jackson, F.J. List of birds obtained in British East Africa, with notes by 

R.B. Sharpe. 1899. Pt.l Ibis 7(5): 587-640; 1901. Pt.2 Ibis 8(1): 33-97» 

1902. Pt.3 Ibis 8(2) : 611-643. 

Jackson, F.J. 1906. Notes on a collection of birds by G. Archer in 

the Ruwenzori. Ibis 8(6): 505-570. 
1913. Bird migrants observed in Uganda. Journal of the East 

Africa and Uganda Natural History Society 7: 87-88. 

1914. Bird migrants. Journal of the East Africa and Uganda 



Natural History Society 8: 147, 

Mann, C.F. 1971. Distributional notes on some Uganda birds. 
Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club 91: 111-113 



74 



! 



Mann, C.F. 1973. Some recent raptor records from East Africa. 
EANHS Bulletin 1973: 96-98. 



1976. Some recent changes in our knowledge of bird distribution 

in East Africa. Journal of the East Africa Natural History Society and 
National Museum 157: 1-24. 

Meinertzhagen, R. 1922. Notes on some birds from the Near East, and from 
tropical East Africa. Ibis 11(4): 1-74. 



1939. Occurrence of the Corsican Wryneck in Uganda. 



Ibis 14(3): 567. 

Nest Record. East Africa Nest Record Scheme: East Africa Natural History 
Society, Nairobi. 

Ogilvie-Grant, W.R. 1910. Ruwenzori Expedition reports 16, Aves. 
Transactions of the Zoological Society, London 19: 235-480. 

Okia, N. 1976. Birds of the understorey of the Lake shore forests on the 
Entebbe peninsula, Uganda. JJbis 118: 1-13. 

Pearson, D.J. 1971. The occurrence of the Great Black-headed Gull Larus 
ichthyaetus in Uganda. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club- 
91: 171-172. 



1972a. Some migrant bird records from the Kampala area, Uganda 



EANHS Bulletin 1972: 27-29. 



1972b. Wintering and migration of the Palaearctic passerines 

in Kampala. JJbis 114: 43-60. 

Pomeroy, D.E. 1975. Birds as scavengers of refuse in Uganda. Ibis 117: 69- 

Seth-Smith, L.M. 1911. Birds in Uganda forests. Journal of the East Africa 
and Uganda Natural History Society 3: 4-8. 

1913. Notes on birds round Mpumu, Uganda. libis 10(4): 



485-508. 

Sharpe, R.B. 1902. On the collection of birds made by Sir Harry Johnston in 

equatorial Africa. JJbis 8(2): 96-121. 

# 
Stoneham, H.F. Field notes on a collection of birds from Uganda. 

1926. Pt.l Ibis 12(2): 26-91; 1928. Pt.2 Ibis 12(4): 252-285; 

1929. Pt.3 Ibis 12(5): 267-292; 1931 Pt.4 Ibis 13(1): 701-712. 

Uganda Museum, Kampala. A collection of specimens. 

van Someren, R.A.L. & van Someren, V.G.L. 1911. Studies of bird life in 
Uganda. London: John Bale & Sons & Danielsson. 

van Someren, V.G.L. 1914. Breeding of game birds. Journal of the 
East Africa and Uganda Natural History Society 8: 152. 



1916. A list of birds collected in Uganda and British 



East Africa, with notes on nesting and other habits. Ibis 10(4) : 
193-252; 373-472. 



— 1918. A further contribution to the ornithology of 

Uganda (West Elgon and district). Novitates Zoologicae 25: 263-290. 

1921. Descriptions of African birds. Bulletin of 



the British Ornithologists' Club 41: 102-106. 



1922. Notes on the birds of East Africa. Novitates 



Zoologicae 29: 1-246. 



75 



van Someren, V.G.L. 1932. Birds of Kenya and Uganda, addenda and corrigenda 
to my previous paper of 1922. Novitates Zoologicae 37: 252-380. 

1936. Birds of Kenya and Uganda vol.2 pt.5. Journal 



of the East Africa and Uganda Natural History Society 13: 112, 
& van Someren, G.R.C. 1949. The birds of Bwamba. 



Special Supplement to the Uganda Journal 13. 
Williams, J.G. 1967. A field guide to the National Parks of East Africa. 

London: Collins. 
Zoology Museum. A collection of specimens in Makerere University, Kampala. 

GROUP B - works consulted, but not cited 

Britton, P.L. (ed.) 1980. Birds of East Africa. Nairobi: EANHS. 

Brown, L.H. & Britton, P.L. 1980. The breeding seasons of East African birds. 
Nairobi : EANHS . 

Chapin, J. P. 1932-1954. The birds of the Belgian Congo. 4 vols. Bulletin 
of the American Museum of Natural History 65, 75, 75A, 75B. 

Department of Lands and Surveys. 1971. Gazetteer of Uganda. Entebbe: 

Uganda Government. 

Downer, E.R. (ed.) 1967. Atlas of Uganda 2nd edition. Entebbe: Department 
of Lands and Surveys. 

Hall, B.P. & Moreau, R.E. 1970. An atlas of speciation in African passerine 
birds. London: British Museum (Natural History). 

Jackson, F.J. 1938. The birds of Kenya Colony and the Uganda Protectorate 
3 vols. London: Gurney & Jackson. 

Langdale-Brown , I., Osmaston, H.A. & Wilson, J.G. 1964. The vegetation of 
Uganda. Entebbe: Government Printer. 

Mackworth-Praed, C.W. & Grant, C.H.B. 1957, 1960. African Handbook of birds. 
Series 1, vols. 1 & 2. Birds of eastern and north-eastern Africa. 
2nd. edition. London: Longmans, Green & Co. 

Snow, D.W. (ed. ) 1978. An atlas of speciation in African non-passerine birds. 

London: British Museum (Natural History). 
White, C.M.N. 1960. A checklist of the Ethiopian Muscicapidae (Sylviinae) . 

Part 1. Occasional papers of the National Museums of Southern Rhodesia 

3 (24B) : 399-430. 



1961. A revised checklist of African broadbills , pittas, larks, 

swallows, wagtails and pipits. Lusaka: Government Printer. 



1962a. A checklist of the Ethiopian Muscicapidae (Sylviinae) . 

Parts 2 and 3. Occasional papers of the National Museums of Southern 
Rhodesia 3 (26B) : 653-738. 



1962b. A revised checklist of African shrikes, orioles, drongos, 

starlings, crows, waxwings , cuckoo-shrikes, bulbuls, accentors, thrushes and 
babblers. Lusaka: Government Printer. 



— 1963. A revised checklist of African flycatchers, tits, tree 

creepers, sunbirds , white-eyes , honey eaters, buntings, finches, weavers 
and waxbills . Lusaka: Government Printer. 



1965. A revised checklist of African non-passerine birds. 



Lusaka: Government Printer. 

76 



INDEX OF SCIENTIFIC NAMES 
Numbers refer to species, not pages 



abdimii, Ciconia 44 

aberrans, Cisticola 846 p. 69 

abyssinica, Coracius 495 

abyssinica, Hirundo 624 

abyssinica, Bucorvus 527 

Accipiter 102 

Acrocephalus 805 

Actites 252 

Actophilornis 225 

acuta, Anas 62 

adansoni, Coturnix chinensis 164 

adsimilis, Dicrurus 644 

adusta, Muscicapa 936 

aegyptiacus, Alopochen 61 

aereus, Ceuthmo chares 401 

aeruginosus, Circus 92 

aethiopica, Hirundo 625 

aethiopica, Threskiornis 54 

afer, Francolinus 167 

afer, Turtur 355 

af finis, Apus 443 

africana, Mirafra 612 

africanus, Actiphilornis 225 

africanus, Bubo 412 

africanus, Buphagus 1077 

africanus, Gyps 85 

africanus, Hieraaetus 126 

africanus, Phalacrocorax 17 

Agapornis 363 

aguimp, Motacilla 991 

alba, Caladris 267 

alba, Egretta 34 

alba, Motacilla 992 

alba, Platalea 

alba, Tyto 407 

albiceps, Psalidoprocne 639 

albicollis, Corvus 653 

albicollis, Ficedula 930 

albicollis, Merops 479 

albifrons, Amblyospiza 1134 

albigularis, Phyllastrephus 718 

albipectus, Trichastoma 674 

albiventris, Trochocercus 969 

alboterminatus, Tockus 515 

albus, Corvus 654 

Alcedo 466 

alcinus, Macheiramphus 143 

Alethe 734 

alexandrinus , Charadrius 229 

alleni, Porphyrio 202 



Alopochen 61 

Amandava 1219 

Amblyospiza 1134 

ameliae, Macronyx 986 p. 69 

amurensis, Falco 146 

Anaplectes 1135 

Anas 62 

Anastomus 43 

Andropadus 697 

angolensis, Dryoscopus 998 

angolensis, Gypohierax 84 

angolensis, Hirundo 627 

angolensis, Pitta 598 

angulata, Gallinula 198 

Anhinga 19 

ansorgei, Nesocharis 1243 

Anthreptes 1080 

Anthus 976 

Apalis 817 

Apaloderma 462 

apiaster, Merops 480 

Aplopelia 337 

Apus 443 

apus, Apus 444 

apivorus, Pernis 140 

aquatica, Muscicapa 937 

Aquila 115 

Ardea 25 

ardens, Euplectes 1139 

Ardeola 30 

ardesiacus, Falco 147 

Arenaria 281 

argentatus , Larus 305 

armatus, Vanellus 243 p. 69 

arquata, Numenius 253 

Artomyias 926 

arundinaceus , Acrocephalus 805 

asiaticus, Charadrius 230 

Asio 409 

astrild, Estrilda 1226 

atricapilla, Sylvia 917 

atricollis, Ortygospiza 1249 

atrocaerulea, Hirundo 628 

atrogularis, Serinus 1280 

augur, Buteo 120 

auratus, Oriolus 646 

aurantius, Ploceus 1158 

auritus, Nettapus 77 

australis, Tchagra 1022 

australis, Treron 358 



77 



Aviceda 139 

axillaris, Euplectes 1140 

ayresii, Cisticola 848 

badius, Accipiter 102 

baeticatus, Acrocephalus 806 

Balaeniceps 41 

Balearica 194 

barbarus, Laniarius 1003 

barbatus, Pycnonotus 732 

Bathmocercus 829 

Batis 949 

Baeopogon 706 

baumanni, Phyllastrephus 719 

beema, Motacilla flava 996 

bellicosus, Polemaetus 134 

bengalensis, Sterna 323 

bengalus, Uraeginthus 1261 

benghalensis, Rostratula 227 

Bias 955 

biarmicus, Falco 148 p. 69 

bicolor, Dendrocygna 59 

bicolor, Lonchura 1265 

bidentatus, Lybius 534 

bifasciata, Nectarinia 1092 

bilineatus, Pogoniulus 548 

blanchoti, Malaconotus 1012 

Bleda 707 

blissetti, Malaconotus 1013 

bollei, Phoeniculus 503 

bonapartei, Gymnobucco 533 

borin, Sylvia 918 

Bostrychia 51 

bouvieri, Nectarinia 1093 

brachyptera, Cisticola 850 

brachyura, Camaroptera 837 

brachyura, Sylvietta 921 

Bradornis 927 p. 69 

Bradypterus 834 

Bubo 412 

Bubulcus 32 

Buccanodon 529 

Bucorvus 527 

Burhinus 287 

Butorides 33 

Buteo 120 

buteo, Buteo 122 

Burhinus 287 

Bycanistes 513 

caerulescens, Muscicapa 938 
caerulescens, Rallus 208 
caeruleus, Elanus 142 



cafer, Bucorvus 528 

caffer, Apus 447 

cailliautii, Campethera 580 p. 69 

Calandrella 601 

calurus, Criniger 714 

Camaroptera 838 

Campephaga 688 

campestris, Anthus 976 

Campethera 581 

canorus, Cuculus 395 

capensis, Asio 409 

capensis, Burhinus 287 

capensis, Corvus 655 p. 69 

capensis, Microparra 226 

capensis, Motacilla 993 

capensis, Oena 345 

capicola, Streptopelia 346 

Caprimulgus 427 

caprius, Chrysococcyx 388 

carbo, Phalacrocorax 18 

cardinalis, Quelea 1191 

caroli, Campethera 581 

caroli, Remiz 668 

carpalis, Bradypterus 834 

carruthersi, Cisticola 853 

caspia, Sterna 325 

castanea, Platysteira 958 

castaneiceps, Phoeniculus 504 

castanops, Ploceus 1164 

cauda ta, Coracias 496 

Centropus 403 

Cercococcyx 385 

Cercotrichas 743 

cervinus, Anthus 977 

Ceryle 464 

cerviniventris , Bathmocercus 829 

Ceuthmochares 401 

chalcopterus, Rhinoptilus 295 

chalybeata, Hypochera 1211 

Charadrius 229 

chelicuti, Halcyon 472 

chicquera, Falco 150 

chinensis, Coturnix 164 

Chlidonias 318 

chloris, Nicator 716 

Chlorocichla 709 

chloronota, Camaroptera 838 

chloropterus , Lamprotornis 1056 

chloropus, Gallinula 199 

chloropygia, Nectarinia 1094 

Chrysococcyx 388 

chrysoconus, Pogoniulus 549 

Ciccaba 416 



78 



Ciconia 45 

ciconia, Ciconia 45 

cincta, Riparia 641 

cinerascens, Circaetus 97 

cinerea, Apalis 817 

cinerea, Calandrella 601 

cinerea, Creatophora 1052 

cinerea, Motacilla 994 

cinereocapilla, Motacilla flava 996 

cinereus, Circaetus 98 

cinereus, Xenus 261 

Cinnyricinclus 1048 

Circaetus 97 

cirrocephalus, Larus 306 

Cisticola 848 

citrinelloides, Serinus 1283 

Clamator 392 

clamosus , Cuculus 396 

clarus, Caprimulgus 427 

climacurus, Caprimulgus 428 

Clytospiza 1221 

Colius 459 

Columba 342 

collaris, Anthreptes 1080 

collaris, Lanius 1029 

collurio, Lanius 1030 

collybita, Phylloscopus 904 

comitata, Muscicapa 940 

communis, Sylvia 919 

concolor, Falco 151 p. 71 

concolor, Macrosphenus 895 

conirostris, Indicator 561 

Coracias 496 

Coracina 695 

corona tus, Stephanoaetus 135 

Corvus 653 

Corythaeola 372 

Cossypha 750 

Coturnix 164 

coturnix, Coturnix 165 

crassirostris , Vanellus 245 

Creatophora 1052 

Crex 196 

crex, Crex 196 

Crinifer 376 

Criniger 714 

cristata, Corythaeola 372 

croceus, Macronyx 988 

crumenif erus , Leptoptilos 49 

cubla, Dryoscopus 999 p. 69 

cuculoides, Aviceda 139 

Cuculus 395 

cucullata, Lonchura 1266 

cuprea, Nectarinia 1096 

cupreus, Chrysococcyx 389 

Cursorius 292 



cuvieri, Falco 152 
cyanea, Platysteira 960 
cyanocampter , Cossypha 750 
cyanolaema, Nectarinia 1097 
Cypsiurus 452 

decipiens, Streptopelia 347 p. 71 
delegorguei, Coturnix 166 
Delichon 623 
Dendrocygna 59 
diademata, Alethe 734 
diadematus, Lybius 535 
Dicrurus 644 
Dryocichloides 761 
Dryoscopus 998 
dubius, Charadrius 231 
dubius, Hieraaetus 126 
duchaillui, Buccanodon 529 

ecaudatus, Terathopius 101 

edolioides, Melaenornis 934 

edouardi, Guttera 188 

egregia, Crex 197 

Egretta 34 

Elanus 142 

elegans, Sarathura 211 

Emberiza 1278 

Eminia 875 

Ephippiorhynchus 48 

epi scopus, Ciconia 46 

epops, Upupa 502 

Erannornis 963 

erithacus, Psittacus 371 

erythroceria , Nectarinia 1098 

erythrops, Cisticola 857 

erythrops, Quelea 1192 

erythropus, Tringa 255 

ery throrhynchus , Buphagus 1078 

ery thro thorax, Stiphrornis 789 

Estrilda 1226 

Euplectes 1140 

Eupodotis 218 

europaeus, Caprimulgus 430 

Eurystomus 500 

excubitorius, Lanius 1032 

exilis, Indicator 562 

eximia, Bleda 707 

Falco 146 

falcinellus, Plegadis 53 
fasciatus, Tockus 519 
feldegg, Motacilla flava 996 
ferruginea, Calidris 270 
ferrugineus, Laniarius 1004 
Ficedula 930 
flammulata, Megabyas 956 



79 



flava, Campephaga 688 
flava, Motacilla 996 
flavicans, Macrosphenus 896 
flavicollis, Chlorocichla 709 
flavida, Apalis 818 
flavigaster, Hyliota 891 
f 1 a vi rostra, Limnocorax 201 
flavirostris, Rynchops 331 
flaviventris, Eraberiza 1273 p. 70 
fossii, Caprimulgus 431 
Francolinus 167 
fraseri, Anthreptes 1081 
fraseri, Stizorhina 790 
fringilloides, Lonchura 1267 p. 70 
fulgidus, Onychognathus 1063 
fuliginosa, Artomyias 926 
fulvescens, Trichastoma 675 
fulviventris, Phyllastrephus p. 69 
funereus/ Parus 664 
fuscescens, Dendropicos 585 
fusconota, Nigrita 1247 
fuscus, Larus 307 

gabar, Melierax 131 
gabonensis, Ortygospiza 1250 
galactotes, Cercotrichas 860 
gallicus, Circaetus 100 
Gallinago 262 
gallinago, Gallinago 262 
Gallinula 199 

gambensis, Dryoscopus 1000 
gambensis, Plectopterus 79 
garrulus, Coracias 497 
garzetta, Egreta 36 
Gelochelidon 320 
gierowii, Euplectes 1144 
glandarius, Clamator 392 
Glareola 298 
glareola, Tringa 256 
glaucurus, Eurystomus 500 
goertae, Mesopicos 590 
goliath, Ardea 26 
Gorsachius 49 

gracilirostris, Acrocephalus 807 
gracilirostris, Andropadus 698 
gracilirostris, Chloropeta 842 
gracilis, Andropadus 699 
grillii, Centropus 403 
griseigularis, Muscicapa 942 
griseldis, Acrocephalus 808 
griseus, Passer 1206 
griseopygia, Hirundo 633 
gularis, Eurystomus 501 
guttatus, Ixonotus 715 
Guttera 188 
Gymnobucco 533 



Gyps 86 p. 69 

Haematopus 228 

Halcyon 472 

haliaetus, Pandion 144 

Haliaeetus 137 

hartlaubi, Cercotrichas 743 

hartlaubi, Euplectes. 1145 

heuglini, Cossypha 951 

hiaticula, Charadrius 233 

Hieraaetus 125 

Himantopus 282 

himantopus, Himantopus 282 

Hippolais 885 

hirsutus, Lybius 538 

Hirundo 624 

hirundo, Sterna 328 

hordeaceus, Euplectes 1146 p. 69 

hottentota, Anas 67 

hottentota, Turnix 192 

Hylia 889 

Hypochera 1211 

hypoleucos, Actitis 252 

ibis, Bubulcus 32 
ibis, Mycteria 50 
ichthyaetus, Larus 310 
icterina, Hippolais 885 
icterorhynchus, Francolinus 172 
Indicator 561 
indicator, Baeopogon 706 
indicator, Indicator 563 
inornatus, Caprimulgus 433 
insignis, Ploceus 1169 p. 70 
insignis, Prodotiscus 572 
intermedia, Egretta 38 
interpres, Arenaria 281 
isabellina, Oenanthe 775 
isabellinus, Lanius 1034 
Ispidina 477 
Ixobrychus 23 
Ixonotus 715 

jacksoni, Apalis 819 
jacksoni, Ploceus 1171 
jacobinus, Clamator 393 
jardineii, Turdoides 681 
juncidis, Cisticola 862 
Jynx 576 

Kaupifalco 129 
kilimensis, Nectarinia 1103 
klaas, Chrysococcyx 391 
koliensis, Serinus 1287 
krameri, Psittacula 370 



80 



lacrymosus, Lybius 539 

lacteus, Bubo 414 

laetissima, Chlorocichla 711 

lamelligerus, Anastomus 43 

Lamprotornis 1056 

Laniarius 1007 

Lanius 1029 

lapponica, Limosa 277 

Larus 305 

larva ta, Aplopelia 337 

larvatus, Oriolus 649 

lateralis, Cisticola 864 

latirostris, Andropadus 701 

lecontei, Ispidina 477 

lepida, Eminia 875 

Leptoptilos 49 

leschenaultii , Charadrius 234 

leucocephala, Halcyon 473 

leucocephala, Lybius 540 

leucocephala, Motacilla flava 996 

leucogaster, Alcedo 467 

leucogaster, Cinnyricinclus 1048 

leucomelas, Parus 666 

leuconotus, Gorsachius 39 

leuconotus, Thalassornis 82 

leucophrys, Cercotrichas 744 

leucophrys, Anthus 978 

ieucopogon, Prinia 911 

leucopterus, Chlidonias 318 

leucorhynchus , Laniarius 1007 

leucorodia, Platalea 56 

leucotis, Otus 422 

leuhderi, Laniarius 1008 

levaillantii, Clamator 394 

levaillantii, Francolinus 176 

Limnocorax 201 

Limosa 277 

limosa, Limosa 278 

livia, Columba 342 

Lonchura 1267 

longicauda, Erannornis 963 

longipennis, Macrodipteryx 440 

longuemarei, Anthreptes 1082 

Lophaetus 130 

lugubris, Vanellus 246 

Luscinia 764 

lutea, Motacilla 996 

luteolus, Ploceus 1172 p. 70 

Lybius 534 

Macheiramphus 143 
mackinnoni, Lanius 1035 
macroura, Vidua 1216 
macrourus, Circus 93 
macrourus, Euplectes 1148 
Macrodipteryx 440 



Macronyx 988 

Macrosphenus 895 

Malaconotus 1013 

malimbica, Halcyon 474 

Malimbus 1155 

Mandingoa 1242 

marginalis, Porzana 204 

marginatus, Charadrius 235 

mariquensis, Nectarinia 1107 

maxima, Ceryle 464 

mechowi, Cercococcyx 385 

media, Gallinago 263 

Megabyas 956 

megarhynchos , Luscinia 764 

Melaenornis 934 

melanocephala, Ardea 27 

melanocephalus, Ploceus 1173 

melanogaster, Eupodotis 218 

melanogaster , Ploceus 1173 

melanoleucus, Accipiter 106 

melanops, Turdoides 683 

melanotos, Sarkidiornis 86 

melba, Apus 449 

meleagris, Numida 190 

Melierax 131 

mentalis, Sphenoeacus 915 

Merops 479 

Mesopicos 590 

meyeri, Poicephalus 367 

Microparra 226 

microrhynchos , Bradornis 927 p. 69 

migrans, Milvus 138 

Milvus 138 

minor, Batis 949 

minor, Indicator 566 

minor, Lanius 1036 

minullus, Accipiter 107 

minuta, Calidris 272 

minuta, Tchagra 1024 

minutus, Ixobrychus 23 

Mirafra 612 

monachus, Centropus 404 

monachus, Neophron 87 

monogrammicus , Kaupifalco 129 

monteiri, Clytospiza 1221 

Monticola 769 

Motacilla 992 

mozambicus, Serinus 

mufumbiri, Laniarius 1009 

Muscicapa 936 

musicus, Bias 955 

Musophaga 377 

Mycteria 50 

Myioparus 946 

Myrmecocichla 771 



81 



naevia, Coracias 498 
nahani, Francolinus 178 
namaqua, Thripias 594 p. 69 
narina, Apaloderma 462 
nasutus, Tockus 524 
natalensis, Caprimulgus 434 
natalensis, Chloropeta 843 
natalensis, Cisticola 866 
natalensis, Cossypha 752 
naumanni, Falco 156 
nebularia, Tringa 257 
Nectarinia 1092 
Neophron 87 
Nesocharis 1243 
Nettapus 77 

nigerrimus, Ploceus 1175 
Nicator 716 
nigra, Ciconia 47 
nigra, Myrmecocichla 771 
nigriceps, Apalis 823 
nigricollis, Ploceus 1176 
nigripennis, Gallinago 264 
Nigrita 1246 

nigromitratus , Trochocercus 972 
nilotica, Gelochelidon 320 
nisoria, Sylvia 920 
nitens, Trochocercus 97 3 
nitidula, Mandingoa 1242 
nonnula, Estrilda 1230 
novae seel an diae, Anthus 981 
nubica, Campethera 583 
nuchalis, Glareola 298 
Numenius 253 
Numida 190 
Nycticorax 40 
nycticorax, Nycticorax 40 

obsoletus, Picoides 593 p. 70 
ocularis, Ploceus 1177 
occipitalis, Lophaetus 130 
occipitalis, Trigonoceps 90 
Oena 345 
Oenanthe 777 
oenanthe, Oenanthe 777 
ochropus, Tringa 258 
olivacea, Nectarinia 1112 
onocrotalus, Pelecanus 11 
Onychognathus 1 06 3 
Oriolus 646 
oriolus, Oriolus 651 
Ortygospiza 1249 
ostralegus, Haematopus 228 
ostrinus, Pyrenestes 1254 
ovampensis, Accipiter 109 

pallida, Hippolais 888 



pallidus, Bradornis 928 

paludicola, Estrilda 1231 

paludicola, Riparia 642 

palustris, Acrocephalus 809 

Pandion 144 

parasitus, Milvus migrans 138 

Parus 664 

parvus, Cypsiurus 452 

Parus 664 

Passer 1206 

pavonina, Balearica 194 

pectoralis, Charadrius 238 

pectoralis, Coracina 695 

Pelecanus 11 

polios, Turd us 801 

pelzelni, Ploceus 1179 

pennatus, Hieraaetus 127 

percnopterus, Neophron 88 

peregrinus, Falco 158 

Pernis 140 

persicus, Merops 490 

phaeopus, Numenius 254 

Phalacrocorax 17 

Philomachus 279 

Phoenicea, Campephaga 690 

Phoeniculus 503 

Phoenicurus 781 

phoenicurus, Phoenicurus 781 

Pholidornis 901 

Phyllastrephus 718 

Phylloscopus 907 

picta, Ispidina 478 

Pitta 598 

placidus, Phyllastrephus 727 

Platalea 55 

Platysteira 957 

platyura, Schoenicola 914 

plebejus, Turdoides 684 

Plectopterus 79 

pleschanka, Oenanthe 779 

Ploceus 1158 

plumata, Prionops 1043 

plumbeus, Myioparus 946 

Pluvialis 241 

Podica 216 

poecilolaemus, Dendropicos 587 

Pogonocichla 782 p. 69 

Pogoniulus 548 

Poicephalus 367 

Polemaetus 134 

poliocephala, Alethe 736 

poliocephalus , Cuculus 398 

poliopterus, Dryocichloides 761 

pomarina, Aquila 115 

Porphyrio 202 

porphyrio, Porphyrio 203 



82 



Porzana 204 
porzana, Porzana 206 
prasina, Hylia 889 
Prinia 911 
Prionops 1043 
ProdotiscUs 572 
Psalidoprocne 639 
Psittacula 370 
Psittacus 371 
pugnax, Philomachus 279 
pulchella, Nectarinia 1116 p. 69 
pulchra, Sarothrura 213 
pullaria, Agapornis 363 
purpuratus, Trachylaemus 556 
purpurea, Ardea 28 
purpureiceps , Lamprotornis 1058 
purpureus, Lamprotornis 1058 
purpureus, Phoeniculus 508 
purpuropterus , Lamprotornis 1060 
pusilla, Eremomela 879 p. 69 
pusillus, Merops 491 
pygargus, Circus 94 

quadribrachys , Alcedo 468 
Quelea 1192 
quelea, Quelea 1193 
querquedula, Anas 69 
quiscalina, Campephaga 691 

radiatus, Polyboroides 96 
Rallus 208 

ranivorous, Circus 95 
rapax, Aquila 116 
rectirostris , Anthreptes 1087 
reichenowi, Nectarinia 1119 
reichenowi, Pitta 599 
Remiz 668 

rex, Balaeniceps 41 
Rhaphidura 456 
rhodopyga, Estrilda 1233 
Rhyn chops 331 
ridibundus, Larus 314 
Riparia 642 
riparia, Riparia 643 
robusta, Cisticola 869 
rolleti, Lybius 544 p. 69 
rossae, Musophaga 377 
Rostratula 227 
rubescens, Nectarinia 1120 
rubetra, Saxicola 783 
rubricata, Lagonosticta 1239 
rubriceps, Anaplectes 1135 
rubricollis, Malimbus 1155 
rudis, Ceryle 465 
rueppellii, Gyps 86 p. 69 
rufa, Anhinga 19 



rufa, Sarothrura 214 
rufescens, Acrocephalus 810 
rufescens, Pelecanus 12 
ruficapilla, Spermophaga 1259 
ruficollis, Tachybaptus 4 
rufipennis, Trichastoma 677 
rufiventer, Terpsiphone 967 
rufiventris, Accipiter 110 
rufiventris, Ardeola 31 
rufocinerea, Monticola 768 p. 69 
rufocinnamomea, Mirafra 621 
rufogularis, Apalis 826 
rushiae, Pholidornis 901 
rustica, Hirundo 634 

sabini, Rhaphidura 456 
Sarkidiornis 80 
Sarothrura 211 
saxatilis, Monticola 769 
Saxicola 783 

scandens, Phyllastrephus 728 
Schoenicola 914 

schoenobaenus f Acrocephalus 811 
schuetti, Turaco 384 
scirpaceus, Acrocephalus 812 
scolopaceus, Pogoniulus 553 
scops, Otus 424 
Scopus 42 

seimundi, Nectarinia 1121 
semirufa, Hirundo 635 
semitorquata, Streptopelia 350 
senator, Lanius 1038 
senegala, Lagonosticta 1241 
senegala, Tchagra 1025 
senegalensis, Ephippiorhynchus 48 
senegalensis, Halcyon 475 
senegalensis, Hirundo 636 
senegalensis, Nectarinia 1122 
senegalensis, Podica 216 
senegalensis, Streptopelia 351 
senegalensis, Zosterops 1133 
senegallus, Vanellus 248 
Serinus 1280 

sibilatrix, Phylloscopus 907 
similis, Anthus 982 
smithii, Hirundo 637 
solitarius, Cuculus 399 
Spermophaga 1259 
Sphenoeacus 915 
spilogaster, Hieraaetus 128 
spinosus, Vanellus 249 
splendidus, Lamprotornis 1061 
squama tus, Francolinus 184 
squatarola, Pluvialis 241 
stagnatilis, Tringa 259 
stellata, Pogonocichla 782 



83 



Stephanoaetus 135 
Stiphrornis 789 
Stizorhina 790 
Streptopelia 346 
striata, Muscicapa 945 
striatus, Butorides 33 
striatus, Colius 459 
subbuteo, Falco 160 
subcylindricus, Bycanistes 513 
subflava, Amandava 1219 
subflava, Prinia 913 
subsulphureus , Pogoniulus 555 
sulfureopectus, Malaconotus 1019 
sulphuratus, Serinus 1293 
superba, Nectarinia 1125 
superciliaris, Camaroptera 841 
superciliosus, Centropus 406 
superciliosus, Merops 493 
superciliosus, Ploceus 1184 
superciliosus, Vanellus 250 
sylvatica, Turnix 193 
Sylvia 917 
Sylvietta 921 
syndactyla, Bleda 708 

tachiro, Accipiter 111 

Tachybaptus 4 

tahapisi, Emberiza 1278 

Tauraco 384 

Tchagra 1022 

Telacanthura 457 

temminckii, Calidris 274 

temminckii, Cursorius 292 

Terathopius 101 

Terpsiphone 967 

Thalassornis 82 

Threskiornis 54 

Thripias 594 

thunbergi, Motacilla flava 996 

tinnunculus, Falco 161 

Tockus 515 

torquata, Saxicola 784 

torquila, Jynx 576 

totanus, Tringa 260 p. 71 

Trachylaemus 556 

Treron 401b 

Trichastoma 674 

tricollaris, Charadrius 239 

tricolor, Ploceus 1186 

Trigonoceps 90 

Tringa 255 

trivialis, Anthus 984 

trochilus, Phylloscopus 908 

Trochocercus 972 

Turdoides 681 

Turdus 801 



Turnix 192 

Turtur 355 

turtur, Streptopelia 352 

tympani stria, Turtur 357 

Tyto 407 

umbrovirens, Phylloscopus 909 
undulata, Anas 72 
unicincta, Columba 344 
Upupa 502 
Uraeginthus 1261 
urbica, Delichon 623 
ussheri, Telacanthura 457 

Vanellus 245 

variegatus, Indicator 569 
variegatus, Merops 494 
venusta, Nectarinia 1128 
vermiculatus, Burhinus 290 
verticalis, Nectarinia 1130 
vexillarius, Macrodipteryx 441 
Vidua 1216 

viduata, Dendrocygna 60 
virens, Andropadus 705 
virens, Sylvietta 924 
viridis, Terpsiphone 968 
vocifer, Haliaeetus 137 

wahlbergi, Aquila 118 
weynsi, Ploceus 188 
whytii, Sylvietta 925 
woodfordii, Ciccaba 416 
woosnami, Cisticola 873 

xantholophus, Mesopicos 592 
xanthops, Ploceus 1189 
Xenus 261 

zonurus, Crinifer 376 
Zosterops 1133 



84 



INDEX OF ENGLISH NAMES 

Numbers refer to species, not pages 



Alethe, Brown-chested 736 

Fire-crested 734 
Apalis, Black-capped 823 

Black- throated 819 

Buff-throated 826 

Grey 817 

Yellow-breasted 818 

Babbler, Arrow-marked 681 

Black-lored 683 

Brown 684 
Barbet, Black-breasted 544 

Double-toothed 534 

Grey- throated 533 

Hairy-breasted 538 

Red- fronted 835 

Spotted- flanked 539 

White-headed 540 

Yellow-billed 556 

Yellow-spotted 529 
Bateleur 101 
Batis, Black-headed 949 
Bee-eater, Blue-breasted 494 

Blue-cheeked 490 

Eurasian 480 

Little 491 

Madagascar 493 

White- throated 479 
Bishop, Black 1144 

Black-winged Red 1146 p. 69 
Bittern, Little 23 
Blackcap 917 

Bluebill, Red-headed 1259 
Boubou, Sooty 1007 

Tropical 1004 
Bristlebill 708 

Green-tailed 707 
Bulbul, Common 732 
Bunting, Cinnamon-breasted Rock 1278 

Golden-breasted 1273 p. 70 
Bustard, Black-bellied 218 
Buzzard, Augur 120 

Honey 140 

Lizard 129 

Steppe 122 

Camaroptera, Grey-backed 837 

Olive-green 838 

Yellow-browed 841 
Canary, Brimstone 1293 



Papyrus 1287 

Yellow- fronted 1290 
Chat, Blue-shouldered Robin 750 

Red- capped Robin 752 

Snowy-headed Robin 753 

Sooty 771 

White-browed Robin 751 
Chiffchaff 904 
Cisticola, Carruthers ' 853 

Croaking 866 

Red-faced 857 

Rock- loving 846 

Siffling 850 

Stout 866 

Trilling 873 

Whistling 864 

Winding 860 

Wing-snapping 848 

Zitting 862 
Citril, African 1283 
Coucal, Black 403 

Blue-headed404 

White-browed 406 
Courser, Temminck's 292 

Violet-tipped 295 
Cordon-bleu, Red-cheeked 1261 
Cormorant, Greater 18 

Long- tailed 17 
Corncrake 196 
Curlew 253 
Crake, African 197 

Black 201 

Buff -spotted Pygmy 211 

Red-chested Pygmy 214 

Spotted 206 

Striped 204 

White-spotted 213 
Crane, Crowned 194 
Crombec, Green 924 

Northern 921 

Red- faced 925 
Crow, Pied 654 
Cuckoo, Black 396 

Black and White 393 

Didric 388 

Dusky Long-tailed 385 

Emerald 398 

Eurasian 395 

Great Spotted 392 

Klass' 391 



85 



Lesser 398 

Levaillant's 394 
Red-chested 399 
Cuckoo Shrike, Black 688 
Purple- throated 691 
Red-shouldered 690 
White-breasted 695 p. 71 

Darter 19 

Dove, Blue-spotted Wood 355 

Laughing 351 

Lemon 337 

Namaqua 345 

Mourning 347 p. 71 

Red-eyed 350 

Ring-necked 346 

Tambourine 357 

Turtle 352 
Duck, Fulvous Whistling 59 

Knob-billed 80 

White-backed 82 

White-faced Whistling 60 

Yellow-billed 72 
Drongo 644 

Velvet-mantled 644 



Flycatcher, Ashy 938 

Black 934 

Black and White 955 

Blue 963 

Blue-headed Crested 973 

Collared 930 

Dusky 936 

Dusky Blue 940 

Dusky Crested 972 

Grey 927 p. 69 

Grey-throated 942 

Lead-coloured 946 

Pale 928 

Paradise 968 

Red-bellied Paradise 967 

Shrike 956 

Sooty 926 

Spotted 945 

Swamp 937 

White-bellied Crested 969 p. 69 
Francolin, Forest 174 

Heuglin's 172 

Nahan's 178 

Red-winged 176 

Scaly 184 



Eagle, African Hawk 128 

Ayre's Hawk 126 

Banded Snake 97 

Black-chested Snake 100 

Booted 127 

Brown Snake 98 

Cassin's Hawk 125 

Crowned 135 

Fish 137 

Lesser Spotted 115 

Long-crested 130 

Martial 134 

Tawny 116 

Wahlberg's 118 
Egret, Cattle 32 

Great White 34 

Little 36 

Yellow-billed 38 
Eremomela, Green-backed 879 p. 69 

Falcon, Eastern Red-footed 146 

Lanner 148 p. 69 

Peregrine 158 

Red-necked 150 

Sooty 151 p. 71 
Finfoot, African 216 
Firefinch, African 1239 

Red-billed 1241 
Fiscal 1029 

Grey-backed 1032 



Gallinule, Allen's 202 

Purple 203 
Godwit, Bar- tailed 277 

Black-tailed 278 
Gonolek, Black-headed 1003 

Papyrus 1009 
Goose, African Pygmy 77 

Egyptian 61 

Spur-winged 79 
Goshawk , African 111 

Gabar 131 
Grebe, Little 4 
Greenbul, Cameroon Sombre 697 

Honeyguide 706 

Joyful 711 

Little 705 

Little Grey 699 

Pale Olive 768 p. 69 

Placid 727 

Red- tailed 714 

Slender-billed 698 

Spotted 715 

Toro Olive 719 

White-throated 718 

Yellow-whiskered 701 
Greenshank 257 
Guineafowl, Crested 188 

Helmeted 190 
Gull, Black-headed 314 

Great Black-headed 310 



86 



Grey-headed 306 

Herring 305 

Lesser Black-backed 307 

Hadada 51 

Hamerkop 42 

Harrier, African Marsh 95 

Eurasian Marsh 92 

Montagu's 94 

Pallid 93 
Hawk, Bat 143 

Cuckoo 139 

Harrier 96 
Heron, Black 35 

Black-headed 27 

Goliath 26 

Green-backed 33 

Grey 25 

Night 40 

Purple 28 

Rufous-bellied 31 

Squacco 30 

White-backed Night 39 
Hobby 160 

African 152 
Honeybird, Cassin's 572 
Honeyguide, Black- throated 563 

Least 562 

Lesser 566 

Scaly-throated 569 

Thick-billed 561 
Hoopoe 502 

Forest Wood 504 

Green Wood 508 

White-headed Wood 503 
Hornbill, Abyssinian Ground 527 

Black and White Casqued 513 

Crowned 515 

Grey 524 

Ground 528 

Pied 519 
Hylia, Green 889 

Tit 901 
Hyliota, Yellow-bellied 891 

Ibis, Glossy 53 

Sacred 54 
Illadopsis, Brown 675 

Pale-breasted 677 

Scaly-breasted 674 
Indigobird, Red-billed Firefinch 1211 

Jacana 225 
Lesser 226 

Kestrel 161 



Grey 147 

Lesser 156 
Kingfisher, Chestnut-bellied 473 

Blue-breasted 474 

Dwarf 477 

Giant 464 

Malachite 466 

Pied 465 

Pygmy 478 

Shining Blue 468 

Striped 472 

White-bellied 467 

Woodland 47 5 
Kite, Black 138 

Black-shouldered 142 

Lark, Flappet 621 

Red-capped 601 

Rufous-naped 612 
Leaflove 728 

Yellow-throated 709 
Longbill, Grey 895 

Yellow 896 
Longclaw, Yellow- throated 988 

Rosy-breasted 986 p. 69 
Lovebird, Red-headed 363 

Malirabe, Red-headed 1155 
Mannikin, Black and White 1265 

Bronze 1266 
Martin, African Sand 642 

Banded 641 

House 623 

Sand 643 
Moorhen, Common 199 

Lesser 198 
Mousebird, Speckled 459 

Negrofinch, Grey-headed 1246 

White-breasted 1247 
Nicator 716 
Nightingale 764 
Nightjar, Eurasian 430 

Fiery-necked 436 

Gabon 431 

Long-tailed 428 

Pennant-winged 441 

Plain 433 

Slender-tailed 427 

Standard-winged 440 

White-tailed 434 

Olive-back, White-collared 1243 
Oriole, African Golden 

Black-headed 649 

Golden 651 



B7 



Western Black-headed 647 
Osprey 144 
Owl, African Marsh 409 

African Wood 416 

Barn 407 

Scops 424 

Spotted Eagle 412 

Verreaux's Eagle 414 

White-faced Scops 422 
Oxpecker, Red-billed 1078 

Yellow-billed 1077 
Oystercatcher 228 

Parakeet, Rose-ringed 370 
Parrot, Brown 367 

Grey 371 
Pelican, Pink-backed 12 

White 11 
Pigeon, Afep 344 

Feral 342 

Green 358 
Pintail 62 
Pipit, Long-billed 982 

Plain-backed 978 

Red- throated 977 

Richard's 981 

Tawny 976 

Tree 984 
Pitta, African 598 

Green-breasted 599 
Plantain Eater, Eastern Grey 376 
Plover, Blacksmith 243 p. 69 

Brown-chested Wattled 250 

Caspian 230 

Grey 241 

Kentish 229 

Little Ringed 231 

Long- toed 245 

Ringed 233 

Senegal 246 

Spur-winged 249 

Three-banded 239 

Wattled 248 
Pratincole, White-collared 298 
Prinia, Tawny- flanked 913 

White-chinned 911 
Puff back, Black-backed 999 p. 69 

Northern 1000 

Pink-footed 998 

Quail 165 

Blue 164 

Button 193 

Black-rumped Button 192 

Harlequin 166 
Quailfinch 1249 



Black-chinned 1250 
Quelea, Cardinal 1191 
Red-billed 1193 
Red-headed 1192 

Raven, White-necked 653 
Redshank 260 p. 71 

Spotted 255 
Redstart 781 
Robin, Brown-backed Scrub 743 

Forest 789 

Grey-winged Ground 761 

White-browed Scrub 744 

White-starred Forest 782 
Roller, Abyssinian 495 

Blue-throated 501 

Broad-billed 500 

Eurasian 497 

Lilac-breasted 496 

Rufous-crowned 498 
Rook, Cape 655 p. 69 
Rough-wing, White-headed 639 
Ruff 279 

Sanderling 267 
Sandpiper, Common 252 

Curlew 270 

Green 258 

Marsh 259 

Terek 261 

Wood 256 
Sandp lover, Great 234 

Kittlitz's 238 

White-fronted 235 
Seed-cracker, Black-billed 1254 
Seed-eater, Yellow-rumped 1280 
Shikra 102 
Shoebill 41 
Shrike, Grey-green Bush 1013 

Grey-headed Bush 1012 

Helmet 1043 

Lesser Grey 1036 

Luhder's Bush 1008 

Mackinnon's 1035 

Red-backed 1030 

Red-taoled 1034 

Sulphur-breasted Bush 1019 

Woodchat 1038 
Skimmer, African 231 
Snipe, African 264 

Common 262 

Great 263 

Painted 227 
Sparrow, Grey-headed 1206 
Sparrowhawk, Great 106 

Little 107 



88 



Ovampo 109 

Rufous 110 
Spinetail, Mottle-throated 457 

Sabine's 456 
Spoonbill, African 55 

Eurasian 56 
Spur fowl, Red-necked 167 
Starling, Chestnut- winged 1063 

Lesser Blue-eared Glossy 1190 

Purple Glossy 1059 

Purple-headed Glossy 1058 

Ruppell's Long- tailed Glossy 1060 

Splendid Glossy 1061 

Violet-backed 1048 

Wattled 1052 
Stilt, Black -winged 282 
Stint, Little 272 

Temminck's 274 
Stonechat 784 
Stork, Abdim's 44 

Black 47 

Marabou 49 

Open-billed 43 

Saddle-billed 48 

White 45 

Woolly-necked 46 

Yellow-billed 50 
Sunbird, Beautiful 1116 p. 69 

Blue-throated Brown 1097 

Bronze 1103 

Collared 1080 

Copper 1096 

Golden-winged 1119 

Green 1987 

Green-headed 1130 

Green- throated 1120 

Grey-headed 1081 

Little Green 1221 

Little Purple-banded 1092 

Mariqua 1107 

Olive 1112 

Olive-bellied 1094 

Orange-tufted 1093 

Red-chested 1098 

Scarlet-chested 1122 

Superb 1125 

Variable 1128 

Violet-backed 1082 
Tchagra, Black-headed 1025 

Brown-headed 1022 

Marsh 1024 
Teal, Hottentot 67 
Tern, Caspian 325 

Common 328 

Gull-billprt 91" 



Lesser Crested 323 

White-winged Black 318 
Thicknee, Spotted 287 

Water 290 
Thrush, African 801 

Little Rock 768 p. 69 

Rock 769 

Rufous 790 
Tinkerbird, Speckled 553 

Yellow-fronted 549 

Yellow-rumped 548 

Yellow-throated 555 
Tit, African Penduline 668 

Black 666 

Dusky 664 
Trogon, Bar- tailed 463 

Narina's 462 
Turaco, Black -billed 384 

Great Blue 372 

Ross's 377 
Turnstone 281 
Twinspot, Brown 1221 

Green-backed 1242 

Vulture, African White-backed 85 
Egyptian 88 
Hooded 87 
Palm-nut 84 
Ruppell's 86 p. 69 

Woodpecker, Bearded 594 p. 69 

Brown-backed 593 p. 69 

Brown-eared 581 

Buff-spotted 582 

Cardinal 585 

Fine-banded 584 p. 69 

Grey 590 

Little Spotted 580 p. 69 

Nubian 583 

Uganda Spotted 587 

Yellow-crested 592 
Wryneck, Eurasian 576 

Yellowbill 401 



89 



Riley Dunn & Wilson Ul